中图分类号：04-0 文献标识码：A 文章编号：
Jiang Hua Zhou
（Mailbox 2-3-2403, haibitai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China, code: 066000）
Abstract：The new experimental phenomenon of "the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance" is found in the author's study. For this important new experimental discovery, the author puts forward a new viewpoint different from the "gain and loss theory of electron" to explain the "positive and negative charge" produced, and explains this new experimental phenomenon with a new viewpoint. Then through the new understanding of "matter", "Entity" and "heat energy", we have a new thinking of "atomic model", and get a new "particle charge dynamic atomic model". According to the new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model", it is expounded that the relationship between "substance" and "heat energy" is the root of the existence of attraction and repulsion between substances. This paper puts forward the law of the equilibrium distance of attraction and repulsion between matter (atoms, stars), and reveals the causes of the earth's attraction and many phenomena of attraction and repulsion in the universe.The new experimental phenomenon of "the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance" is found in the author's study. For this important new experimental discovery, the author puts forward a new viewpoint different from the "gain and loss theory of electron" to explain the "positive and negative charge" produced, and explains this new experimental phenomenon with a new viewpoint. Then through the new understanding of "matter", "Entity" and "heat energy", we have a new thinking of "atomic model", and get a new "particle charge dynamic atomic model". According to the new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model", it is expounded that the relationship between "substance" and "heat energy" is the root of the existence of attraction and repulsion between substances. This paper puts forward the law of the equilibrium distance of attraction and repulsion between matter (atoms, stars), and reveals the causes of the earth's attraction and many phenomena of attraction and repulsion in the universe.
Key words:Matter;Entity;Heat;Gravitation ; Repulsion.
0 引 言
【5】北京电视台报道《科技全方位》第1167集 (播出时间2005年 5月 12日，播出题目：我想拿个“诺贝尔”)周江华物理实验重大发现：相同物质间摩擦产生同性电荷实验：
Reveal the cause of the formation of gravity
Jiang Hua Zhou
Mailbox 2-3-2403, haibitai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China, code: 066000,
The new experimental phenomenon of "the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance" is found in the author's study. For this important new experimental discovery, the author puts forward a new viewpoint different from the "gain and loss theory of electron" to explain the "positive and negative charge" produced, and explains this new experimental phenomenon with a new viewpoint. Then through the new understanding of "matter", "Entity" and "heat energy", we have a new thinking of "atomic model", and get a new "particle charge dynamic atomic model". According to the new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model", it is expounded that the relationship between "substance" and "heat energy" is the root of the existence of attraction and repulsion between substances. This paper puts forward the law of the equilibrium distance of attraction and repulsion between matter (atoms, stars), and reveals the causes of the earth's attraction and many phenomena of attraction and repulsion in the universe.
Key words:Matter, Entity,Heat, Gravitation , Repulsion.
This paper is an overview of the latest progress in physics research after the publication of new vision of physics research in the 21st century ! Today, our understanding of the fixed mode of positive and negative charges and the theory of electron gain and loss originate from Hendrik Anton Lorentz (Dutch physicist Lorentz), who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1902, who denied aidelong's understanding of the dynamic nature of charges . At that time, edron didn't find the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance, so his thought was completely denied by the authority of Nobel Prize. His understanding of the dynamic nature of charge has been abandoned for nearly a century. Now, The scientific significance of reintroducing the idea that positive and negative charges can be transformed into each other today is that we have found the experimental fact that the friction between the same substances can not only generate electricity, but only generate the same-sex charge , It is difficult to explain the experimental results with the theory of electronic gain and loss, which will become an electron The theory of gain and loss is hard to justify.Along with aidelong's in-depth study of "the dynamic thought of charge essence",the surprising discovery can not only explain the phenomenon of the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance, but also reveal many physical problems that cannot be explained by the present theory. It has found the breakthrough of Newton's understanding of the nature of the phenomenon of universal gravitation. Here is my new view on the nature of universal gravitation:
I. SUBVERSIVE NEW UNDERSTANDING
1. New understanding of "positive and negative charges":
In the long history of human physics, people are only doing the experiment of friction and electrification between different substances. They never test and study whether the same substance friction is electrified. However, as long as we do experiments, we can find the experimental phenomenon that the same substance friction produces the same-sex charge. For example, two people each take two ends of a silk cloth (two silk cloth: 1 m long and 10 cm wide) to make the middle part of the silk cloth rub against each other. After friction, the electrostatic detector detects the charge on the friction surface of the two silk cloth, and it will be found that the friction surface of the silk cloth only has the same negative charge. (Note: it is very important to cut a new silk cloth into two to ensure the same silk cloth. In each experiment, the silk cloth needs to be rubbed with each other for 3 to 5 minutes until the heating phenomenon occurs on the friction surface of the silk cloth. And each experiment needs to wait for a few minutes, after the surface of the experimental material returns to zero potential, the experiment again, the continuous experiment effect is not obvious). It is difficult to explain the experimental fact that the same charge is produced by friction of the same substance with the theory of electron gain and loss, which becomes the challenge of the theory of electron gain and loss.
It is difficult to explain the fact that the same charge is produced by friction of the same substance with the current electron gain and loss theory, so the author puts forward a new way to explain it. The new viewpoint is that the positive charge of substance is the phenomenon with positive charge when the heat energy in substance is surplus, and the negative charge of substance is the phenomenon with negative charge when the heat energy in substance is lack. Neutral charge is the phenomenon of neutral charge when the heat energy in the substance is saturated. This view is the development of the idea that positive and negative charges can transform each other.
This new viewpoint explains the same-sex charge produced by the friction of the same substance: because the substance is formed by the combination of heat energy and Entity, the friction of the same substance causes the overflow of heat energy due to the destruction of the surface structure of the ubstance, and the Entity on the surface of the substance becomes the state of lack of heat energy after the heat energy is distributed, so the surface of the substance shows the negative charge, thus the friction of the same substance occurs The experimental phenomenon of the same-sex negative charge.
2. New understanding of "matter,heat , Entity"
Understanding of "matter": matter is composed of "Entity" and "heat energy". The combination of them can produce the structure of atomic force and synthesize matter.
Understanding of "thermal energy": the concentration of "thermal energy" is expressed by temperature, The higher the temperature of heat is, the greater the concentration of "thermal energy". There is 3K temperature thermal energy in the vacuum of the universe,There is heat energy in nature.
Heat energy has two kinds of propagation characteristics: one is that the high-pressure heat,energy propagates in the low-pressure heat energy according to the "voltage characteristic mode", that is, the electric and electromagnetic radiation propagates at the speed of light, This is the propagation characteristics of high pressure and strong heat energy. The other is that when the low-pressure heat energy propagates in the high-pressure heat energy, it propagates slowly according to the "concentration diffusion mode" rather than the "voltage characteristic mode" of light speed.
Understanding of "entity": each element represents a different entity. Each element has different "saturated heat energy" when it is combined with heat energy as a different entity. Different "saturated heat energy" corresponds to different "saturated voltage value". This "fixed voltage value of saturated heat energy" carried by various substance entities is called "marked voltage energy" of various substance entities. That is to say, in the "neutron" of each element there is a "marked voltage energy" which represents the entity's own characteristics. The characteristic of "marked voltage energy" is that each element entity has a fixed emission voltage value when it emits heat energy, "marked voltage energy" determines the intensity of each element entity's "emission electromagnetic field".
In my opinion, the establishment of the periodic table of elements is to use strong X-ray to irradiate various elements to activate their respective "marked voltage energy" implied in each element "neutron". After the "marked voltage energy" of each element entity is activated, different wavelength laws are formed by the damping drag of "Earth emission voltage energy " in the propagation, thus each element appears All of them have their own sub-x-ray phenomenon, that is, the sign of roentgen radiation. The existence of "marked voltage energy" is the essential reason for the existence of marked roentgen radiation. The periodic table of elements is established according to the different wavelength rule of secondary X-ray in each element. The establishment of periodic table of elements proves that there are different entities in the material world.
3. New understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model":
According to the view that matter is composed of Entity and thermal energy and they have combining characteristics, when the thermal energy in particle body is deficient, particles show negative charge (such as electrons), when the thermal energy in particle body is saturated, particles show neutral charge (such as neutrons), when the thermal energy in particle body is surplus, particles show positive charge (such as protons). This view is the development of the idea that the positive and negative charges of aidelong can transform each other.
The "particle charge dynamic atomic model" is: the negative charge "electron" which lacks heat energy absorbs heat energy outside the atomic core. With the increase of heat energy contained in the "electron" entity, the negative charge of the "electron" itself weakens, and the "electron" rotates around the atomic core at the same time (see reference  for the formation reason and vector reason of the electron rotating around the atomic core) ）Because of the increase of heat energy, a large number of "electrons" with weak negative electricity are attracted by the Entity in the nucleus, which move towards the near region of the nucleus and assemble into larger particles. When the thermal energy of these large particles is saturated, they enter the nuclear shell area and become neutral charged "neutrons". The thermal energy continues to combine with the Entity "neutrons". When the thermal energy of "neutrons" is surplus, they become positively charged "protons" and enter the atomic nucleus. When the voltage value generated by the continuous combination of "proton" and thermal energy is greater than the value of the external constraint voltage (the value of the external constraint voltage refers to the voltage value emitted from the planet to outer space, see reference ), the thermal energy in the "proton" will follow the "voltage characteristic mode" to emit electromagnetic radiation towards the outside of the atom at the speed of light.After the "proton" releases the heat energy, the large particle body migrates and decomposes to the outside of the nucleus due to the need of absorbing the heat energy. This natural decomposition effect is a phenomenon that the body is conducive to the absorption of the heat energy. Thus, the phenomenon of "proton" breaking down and injecting particles outside the nucleus after losing heat energy is formed. These particles injected outside the nucleus become "electrons" outside the nucleus again. These solid particles have dynamic migration effect all the time. In the process of dynamic migration, when the "proton" stores heat energy before the electromagnetic radiation is emitted, the particle stagnation occurs The retention effect forms the nucleus. The above viewpoint is my new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atom model" under the framework of "dynamic theory of positive and negative charge mutual conversion". At present, there is a dot effect in the electron cloud observed under the electron microscope, which is the imaging of "electron" ejecting from the nucleus. This imaging verifies the scientificity of the new theory.
From the view of the whole atom: in the atom, the balance of electrostatic attraction and electrostatic positive and negative charge is formed between negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons, and the atom shows no external electricity. Atoms only show the characteristics of absorbing and releasing heat energy. The absorbed heat energy is the low energy heat energy which slowly enters into the atoms according to the principle of concentration diffusion, while the heat energy released by atoms is the high-pressure and strong electromagnetic heat energy which is released in the way of electromagnetic radiation according to the voltage characteristics.
II. DISCLOSURE OF THE ESSENTIAL CAUSES OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION AND REPULSION
1. Understanding of gravity and repulsion:
The new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model" helps us to find out the essential reasons for the phenomena of absorbing "thermal energy" and releasing electromagnetic radiation, and the root of the existence of gravitation and repulsion between substances.
In a word, the "heat absorption ability" of matter is the "universal gravitation" of matter.
The repulsion force of matter is simply said: the repulsion force between the atoms (between the stars) is formed by the "electromagnetic field emission" generated by the mutual release of strong electromagnetic heat energy.
At the micro level, the phenomenon of repulsion between atoms is the repulsion effect formed by the "electromagnetic field" generated by the release of strong electromagnetic heat energy between atoms.
At the macro level, the planet continuously absorbs low "heat energy" and continuously emits strong electromagnetic heat energy to outer space, which results in the permanent existence of strong electromagnetic radiation heat energy "emits magnetic field". Because of the repulsive force of the "launching magnetic field" between the two adjacent stars, the "launching magnetic field" of the sun appears, no matter how thin the earth's "launching magnetic field" magnetosphere is compressed, nor can it directly invade the earth's surface. This view reveals the mystery that strong solar wind can not directly invade the earth's surface for many years.
2. The understanding of "the law of balance space between gravity and repulsion"：
The existence of opposites and unity of "universal gravitation" and "universal repulsion" in the material world: the absorption and release of "heat energy" by matter is the root of the existence of "universal repulsion" between matter, that is to say, the existence of the "emission magnetic field" between the two matter bodies determines the mutual repulsion in the short distance, and the reason for the absorption of heat energy by the matter in the long distance determines the mutual attraction between the matter.
There is a law of the balance distance of attraction and repulsion force in the occurrence of "attraction" and "repulsion force": that is, the "repulsion force" generated by the "emission magnetic field" of neighboring stars (atoms) and the "gravitational force" generated by the absorption of "heat energy". Through the self adjustment of the distance between stars (atoms), the repulsion force and gravity between stars (atoms) are balanced, thus producing stars (atoms) ）The law of the balance distance between the gravitational and repulsive forces. All matter (atoms, stars) in the universe are in the natural law of "the law of balance distance between gravity and repulsion".
3、 Understanding of the "law of the balance distance between gravitational and repulsive forces" of stars and planets:
Due to the large electromagnetic energy released between stars, the space between stars is large. The emission of electromagnetic energy between planets is relatively small, so the distance between planets is small. As a huge "entity", stellar bodies show a huge demand for "heat energy", which is reflected in the uptake of "heat energy" by stars in the space of the super system of the universe (such as the solar system), so as to meet the strong demand of stars for "heat energy". Because the mass difference between stars and planets is very large, the planets are controlled by the gravitation formed by the heat absorption of stars. Planets become stars' satellites on the basis of following the law of the balance distance of attraction and repulsion forces. Due to the existence of the attraction and repulsion dependence among the planets, all the planets in the stellar system are in the same plane system structure, and the plane system structure formed by the stars in the galaxy is the same principle.
In a word, the combination of the strength of the "emission magnetic field" (repulsion) and the "ability to absorb heat energy" (gravitation) of the stars in the universe with the distance between the stars determines the positions of the dynamic balance of the stars in the universe space on the basis of following the "law of the balance distance of the repulsion forces between the stars", thus forming the balance state of the operation of the stars in the whole universe.
III. REVELATION OF THE NATURE OF MANY GRAVIATIONAL AND REPULSIVE PHENOMENA IN THE UNIVERSE
1. Reveal the causes of the formation of gravity:
The earth is an aggregate of atoms, and the phenomenon of repulsion of short-range tension with atoms as the unit is not easy to see between micro atoms, which is mainly manifested in the far-range absorption characteristics of relative micro bodies, thus the relative cohesion effect of micro bodies (such as clouds floating in the air) appears, thus forming the cohesion effect of the whole macro earth's own materials. Through this kind of condensation effect of "heat energy" absorbed by atoms, the earth condenses in space and becomes an independent planet. And it follows the requirement of absorbing "heat energy" from outer space to supplement the "entity" in the earth. This characteristic of absorbing low energy "heat energy" from outer space and condensing "heat energy" to the earth's core constitutes the gravitational effect of centripetal condensation of all materials of the earth itself.The low energy "heat energy" absorbed by the earth from outer space refers to the "heat energy" radiated to the earth from other "stars" and "planets", as well as the 3K temperature "heat energy" existing in the space.
The earth's atmosphere is bound by this centripetal condensation of "heat energy" gravity and does not dissipate into space,because the "heat energy" contained in the earth's atmosphere and all the substances on the earth is far higher than the 3K temperature "heat energy" in the space. The centripetal condensing gravitational effect of the centripetal condensing "heat energy" of the earth forms the "centripetal condensing gravity" for all the substances on the earth (all the substances on the earth include: the earth's core, mantle, crust, all the substances on the earth's surface and atmosphere). At the same time, there is a law that the concentration of the "heat energy" condensing from outer space to the earth's core is increasing in turn, and more and more towards the earth The higher the concentration of "thermal energy" in the center of the ball, the higher the temperature. At present, it is known that the temperature of each kilometer of the earth's core is increased by 1 degree, which leads to the formation of the high temperature liquid phase transition effect of the earth's core material. This view reveals the natural mystery of the earth's hot core. The gravitational effect of "heat energy" condensing from outer space to the core of the planet is also the essential reason for high-temperature phase of massive stars to become liquid or gaseous.
The gravitational effect of the centripetal condensation of "heat energy" of the earth's material substance constitutes the phenomenon of gravitation on all matters on the earth, which is the reason for the formation of the earth's gravitation.
2. Reveal the cause of earth rotation:
In the solar system, although the sun and the earth are located in the space of "the law of balance distance between gravity and repulsion", there is still an imbalance between the sun and the earth. That is to say, the "thermal energy" absorbed by the earth facing the sun is larger than that of the earth's back, so the electromagnetic intensity released from the front is larger than that of the earth's back, and the repulsion force of the earth's front to the sun is larger than that of the back (repulsion effect). However, the gravitational effect of the earth's Yin is greater than that of the earth's Yang. The gravitational and repulsive effects of the different positions of the earth's Yin and Yang constitute the source power of the earth's rotation. The earth realizes the dynamic balance of attraction and repulsion through this effect of self transformation, which is the essential reason for the existence of permanent rotation source power of the earth.
3. Reveal the reasons for the formation of the elliptical orbit and structural changes of comets:
More than 1600 comets have been found orbiting the sun, the most famous being Halley's comet. For the special elliptical orbit of comets, this paper considers that it is caused by the change of the repulsive force between comets and the sun. Although comets absorb and release "thermal energy" in equilibrium, from the perspective of the whole orbit of comets around the sun, when comets move far away from the sun in the thin and low "thermal energy" content area of space (that is, the space area far away from the sun), the content of "thermal energy" in comets is less, because the existence of the law of gravitation depends on the absorption of "thermal energy" between matter atoms ”The reason is that the comet with low "thermal energy" content appears the effect of weakened cohesion, loose structure and darkened comet nucleus.At this time, comets with less "thermal energy" are moving towards the sun's star with the characteristics of "thermal energy" radiation source, so as to obtain the supplement of "thermal energy".When the comet moves to the near area of the sun, it gets a lot of "heat energy" from the electromagnetic radiation energy released by the sun. After the comet is filled with a lot of "heat energy", under the repulsive force formed between the sun and the comet's "emission magnetic field", the comet is repelled by the sun, and under the action of the inertial force, an elliptical orbit around the star appears in the movement between the comet and the star 。 The comet filled with "heat energy" has a high content of "heat energy". Due to the existence of the law of universal gravitation, it depends on the absorption of "heat energy" between the matter atoms, which shows that the comet with high content of "heat energy" has a stronger cohesive force, showing the effect of the contraction of the comet body and the enhancement of the brightness of the comet nucleus. This is the reason for the change of comet's elliptical orbit and loose compact structure.
4.Reveal the causes of the formation of black hole gravity:
Substance is a combination of Entity and heat energy, which has the characteristics of combination. All matter contains heat energy, A "pure entity" without "heat energy" at all cannot be called a "substance",Because "pure entity" can't form the structure of atomic force without the participation of heat energy, "pure entity" is the "matter" in the black hole of the universe,and this "matter" in the black hole can not be called matter, it is only a single entity, because the single entity in the black hole of the universe has a strong absorption of heat energy As a result, the electromagnetic radiation heat energy light emitted by the stars is swallowed by the black hole, which is the essential reason for the absorption characteristics of the black hole in the universe.
Postscript: the author also has new opinions on the essential causes of the formation of geomagnetic field, such as the revelation of the relationship between the intensity of the earth's emitted magnetic field and the composition of the earth's elements, the revelation of the causes of the formation of the earth's magnetic field, and the revelation of the causes of the formation of the geomagnetic field in the Allen radiation area. For details, please refer to the author's monograph "new vision of physics research in the 21st century"   and the newly published paper "Revelation of the truth of Natural Science in the material world" .
For more information, please refer to the website: www.21ufo.com, author's email: email@example.com
 Zhou Jianghua, revealing the truth of Natural Science in the material world, scientific and technological innovation, 2018 (No. 32), pp. 137-143.
 translated by song Yusheng, Li Xinzhang, Hui Hexing and Wang Kangmao, speech collection of Nobel Prize winners, physics (Volume I), published by Science Press, 1985.
 Zhou Jianghua, experimental phenomenon and explanation of the same-sex negative charge produced by friction of the same substance, Journal of Ordnance Engineering College (Proceedings of the ninth electrostatic academic conference of Chinese Physical Society), Vol. 12 (2000), supplement, 295-298.
 Zhou Jianghua, new vision of physics research in the 21st century, Jilin Science and Technology Press, 2005.
 Zhou Jianghua, science and Technology Daily: Enlightenment from the book "new vision of physics research in the 21st century", August 21, 2007 (1), serial September 11, 2007 (2).