国际发表《21世纪物理学新理论体系》对当今世界物理学流行观点的挑战

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21世纪物理学新理论体系》对当今世界物理学流行观点的挑战


周江华

中国河北省秦皇岛市海碧台2-3-2403 信箱,秦皇岛066000Tel:0086-18003352823.

E-mail:1092375690@qq.com.


   要:本文是根据英国物理学会IOP《物理学杂志》2020年发布的《21世纪物理新理论体系》,对当今物理学一些流行观点的挑战!否定了:大爆炸理论、广义相对论、引力波存在的认识论、反物质存在的认识论。否定了依靠电子对撞机寻找物质世界最小粒子的研究方法!提出了:“物质光的状态”是第五物理态认识论;恒星不是由氢氦元素构成也不是核反应的认识论;银河体系的形成原因和宇宙单元认识论。本文是对《21世纪物理学新理论体系》的综述和演绎。

关键词:物理学;新理论体系;流行;观点;挑战.


引言

本文是根据英国物理学会IOP《物理学杂志》2020年发布的《21世纪物理新理论体系》,对当今物理学一些流行观点的挑战【1-3: ①宇宙大爆炸理论的否定。②广义相对论用时空弯曲对万有引力的解释是完全错误的谬论。③电子对撞机永远不能完成寻找物质世界最小粒子的使命。④反物质存在的否定。⑤提出了:“物质光的状态”是第五物理态认识论;恒星不是由氢氦元素构成也不是核反应的认识论。⑥《21世纪物理学新理论体系》新思想的综述和演绎。⑦对宇宙和银河体系的新认识论。⑧结束语。


1. 宇宙大爆炸理论的否定

“宇宙大爆炸理论学说”相关回顾:“大爆炸宇宙论”(The Big Bang Theory)认为:宇宙是由一个致密炽热的奇点于137亿年前一次大爆炸后膨胀形成的。1927年,比利时天文学家和宇宙学家勒梅特(Georges Lemaître)首次提出了宇宙大爆炸假说。1929年,美国天文学家哈勃根据假说提出星系的红移量与星系间的距离成正比的哈勃定律,并推导出星系都在互相远离的宇宙膨胀说。不论从1922年美国天文学家埃德温·哈勃开始观测到“红移现象”开始,有关“宇宙膨胀”的观点开始形成。还是1929年,埃德温·哈勃总结出了一个具有里程碑意义的发现,即:不管你往哪个方向看,远处的星系正急速地远离我们而去。他认为,光波变长是由于宇宙正在膨胀的结果4。上述所有这些有关星系(星球)远离我们而去的判断,不外乎就是发现了星光出现衰减红移现象的事实!目前,星光出现衰减红移现象的原因人们都是在认为恒星都在离我们而去,离我们越来越远。从没有人想过星球发出的星光出现衰减红移现象是由其它因素造成?这是一个有关当今世界物理学流行观点“大爆炸宇宙论”是否是正确的一个重大思考!我们根据事实梳理科学认知,才能更好的走在自然科学真理的轨道上,使人类科学文明不断的前进!因此我们要从事实出发探索科学新知。

通过19022月在波特休和美国航线的费拉德尔菲亚号航轮之间发现的不利于电波远距离传播的“白夜效应”【4】,发现电磁波夜晚传播范围总比白天时大1倍以上的事实,可以发现白天和夜晚“热能介质”高低温度的变化是阻尼拖曳造成电磁辐射在传播路径中出现衰减的原因,据此可以推断3k宇温热能”就是造成星光出现衰减红移现象的真正原因,这是热介质阻尼电磁波在传播路径中造成电磁波衰减最有力的证明。因此本文认为星球由于离开我们而去,而出现的星光衰减红移现象,这是一个错误的判断。真实的原因是由于“3k宇温热能”的存在造成了星光在传播路径中出现的衰减红移现象,因此星光衰减红移现象不能代表星球都在离开我们而去。当前仅凭星光衰减红移现象就认定星球都在离开我们而去,这是一个错误的判断,并根据这样一个错误的认识,杜撰出来宇宙大爆炸理论更是一个完全错误谬论。这种,不管你往哪个方向看,远处的星系正急速地远离我们而去。难到我们的地球是宇宙的中心吗?我们的地球是宇宙大爆炸的起点吗?这种认为由一个奇点爆炸创造出宇宙万物无中生有的神学论,不是唯物主义的科学态度。宇宙大爆炸理论是一个错误的谬论!

为了引入导体中的电流与空间中的电磁辐射是同一本质属性,“热能”是“电磁辐射”传播路径上的“电阻”这一新观点,详见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》第五部分:电场新认识论1


2. 广义相对论用时空弯曲对万有引力的解释是完全错误的谬论

所谓时空弯曲引力效应是在为解释为什么行星都围绕恒星运转,以及为解释星系为什么都是平面体系结构编造出来的企图解释这些引力现象的学说。时空弯曲效应认为:天体之间的相互吸引力更像是处在一张布上,大质量天体会把周围的时空压弯,小天体在接近时会掉入这个时空,并在离心力的作用下,一直保持相对稳定的轨道。爱因斯坦还阐述:如果大质量天体压弯时空时,周围的光线在经过时,一定会改变路径偏转一定角度,这就是著名的爱因斯坦时空弯曲引力效应理论。

在用时空曲率来解释引力现象时,甚至连人类为什么会被地球吸引、地球物质为什么会在空间中凝结这一简单问题都无法回答。时空曲率对万有引力的解释理论没有科学意义,它只是对解释行星为什么围绕恒星旋转万有引力现象的一场狡辩!当21世纪物理学新理论体系”完美地揭示了物质世界中万有引力和斥力的成因时,就不再需要用时空弯曲的诡辩来解释行星为什么围绕恒星旋转,星系为什么是平面系统。具体论述见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》第二部分:物质世界的新基本认识论,第三部分:物质世界引力斥力场的新认识论[1]。主要内容如下:

根据“粒子电荷动力学原子模型”的新认识论[1],认为物质对热能的吸收和释放是所有物质吸引和排斥的源泉。根据对万有引力的新认识,不同大小的质量“实体”吸收热能的能力不同,从而产生不同的引力效应。恒星作为一个巨大的“实体”,对“热能”有着巨大的需求,这体现在恒星在宇宙超系统(如太阳系)空间对“热能”的吸收,以满足恒星对“热能”的强烈需求。由于恒星与行星的质量差异很大,由于行星的物质中含有热量,因此由恒星吸热形成的引力控制着行星,同时根据“星”与“星”之间存在的引力和斥力的平衡间距定律,行星就成为了恒星的卫星。在恒星系统中由于行星之间存在着引力和斥力的相互依赖关系,使得恒星系统中的所有行星都处于同一平面系统结构中。银河系恒星形成的平面系统结构是相同的原理。

总之,行星都围绕恒星旋转的现象和平面系统效应的形成并不是所谓时空弯曲理论对引力的解释。这是由于恒星和行星之间巨大的质量差异造成的。行星是由恒星吸热形成的强大引力控制的,在恒星与行星间引力和斥力平衡距离定律的作用下,行星都围绕恒星旋转。在恒星系统中由于行星间存在的引力和斥力的相互依赖关系,从而形成了行星的平面结构效应。

新理论对恒星间(行星间)的“引力与斥力平衡间距定律”的认识是:由于恒星间释放的电磁能较大,恒星间的平衡距离也较大。行星之间的平衡距离相对较小,因为行星之间释放的电磁能量相对较小。在这种理论框架下:宇宙中恒星的“发射磁场强度”(万有斥力)和“吸收热能能力”(万有引力),以及恒星之间的距离,遵循恒星之间的“引力与斥力平衡距离定律”,确定了恒星在宇宙中的动态平衡位置,从而形成整个宇宙中每颗恒星的平衡状态。

新理论体系认为:“万有引力定律”的存在依赖于物质间“热能”的吸收。简而言之,物质对热能的吸收就是物质的引力。因此,万有引力是物质吸收热能的内在吸引力。由物质组成的恒星(行星)不能向外太空发射引力波。新观点认为,在物质世界中,只有排斥波从恒星(行星)释放到外层空间,恒星(行星)永远不会向外层空间发射引力波。因为物质的引力是由向内的吸热引起的,所以没有向外的发射力。所谓引力波的发现,是把恒星发出的排斥波看作引力波的错误判断,是在我们不知道物质万有引力的基本原理的前提下的错误理解。关于星球产生斥力波的原理,详见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》文章的第三部分:物质世界引力斥力场的新认识论的章节1

著名的有“日全食”和无“日全食”对比天象中发现,当“日全食”发生时背景恒星发出的恒星光会出现星光向太阳外的偏移现象。新的解释是:当“日全食”发生时,背景恒星的位置会向太阳外偏离,这是因为背景恒星发出的星光斥力波与太阳发出的阳光斥力波之间产生了相互排斥作用力的效应,使得恒星发出的背景恒星光位置出现向太阳外偏离的效应,从而我们就观察到有无“日全食”对比天象,背景恒星光位置出现的偏离太阳的现象。这种效应的发生与爱因斯坦阐述的用时空弯曲引力解释无关!


3. 电子对撞机永远不能完成寻找物质世界最小粒子的使命

本文根据《21世纪物理学新理论体系》观点,物质是由“实体”和“热能”结合构成。本文认为当通过不断提高高压电磁“热能”在分解“实体”时,将会出现无限分解“实体”粒子的现象,因此我们永远不能找到物质世界的最小粒子,想通过正负电子对撞机寻找物质世界最小粒子的道路将是徒劳的不归之路。随着正负电子对撞机增强高压电磁热能强度技术的不断提高,将会不断发现更微小的粒子,这条探索物质世界最小粒子的道路将永远没有尽头,企图想通过找到物质世界最小粒子,用物质世界最小粒子来揭示宇宙的奥秘,这不是寻找自然科学真理轨迹的有效途径。

关于高热能作用于实体可无限分解“实体”粒子的话题,还要从物质世界粒子的产生和从黑洞中的“黑体物质”说起,根据《21世纪物理学新理论体系》观点:物质是“实体”和“热能”的结合体,“实体”和“热能”具有结合的特性。所有的物质都含有“热能”,一个没有“热能”的“纯实体”根本不能称为“物质”,因为“纯实体”没有“热能”的参与就无法形成原子力的结构(关于原子的形成原因见1】)。宇宙黑洞是由“单一的实体”构成,单一实体对热能有很强烈的吸收作用,所以恒星发出的电磁辐射热能光能够被黑洞吞噬,这就是宇宙中黑洞具有吸光特性的根本原因。本文将“单一实体”构成“黑洞”称为“实体”星。将这种没有原子结构力的“单一实体”称为“实体物理态”。


3.1.高热能作用于“实体”可无限分解“实体”粒子的大小和物质物理态变化的关系

“热能”分解“实体”产生粒子这一现象的起源如下: “热能”分解“实体”产生“粒子”现象的根源在于,它本质上是物质世界中“热能”与“实体”的内在结合规律。当“实体”以“粒子”的形式出现时,有利于“实体”吸收“热能”。“实体”在“热能”作用下将“实体”分解成“粒子”的现象,实际上是一种有利于“实体”吸收“热能”的自然反应现象。随着热能的增加,“实体”分解形成的“粒子”会变小,因为“实体”粒子越小,得到的“热量”就越多。具体来说,由于“实体”粒子越大,“热能”只能与大粒子表面的“实体”结合,而不能与大粒子内部的“实体”结合,因此粒子造粒的小型化这种自然反应现象可以实现“热能”与“实体”的更多结合,这就是物质世界为什么存在“热能”的大小与分解“实体”产生粒子大小成反比关系定律的原因。上述就是本文关于“热能”与“实体”结合可以无限分解“实体”粒子的大小,永远也找不到最小“实体”粒子的真正原因。

“实体”粒子小到“光子”时,就可以实现“热能”与“实体”的完美结合,这时“实体”微化成度已经小到了能够与电磁辐射同步运行的“物质光的状态”,或许光子根本就不是粒子状态而是流态(猜测),这也许就是光电子找不到体积边界的原因。后面将介绍“热能”分解“实体”粒子微化出现物质的第五物理态“物质光的状态”的新认识。

“热能”是物质世界的基本构成,这种物质属性存在于宇宙空间中,3K宇宙温度热能就是它真实存在的直接证据。它不是“实体”它是“热能量”,又称为“能量”,热能量强度是指:单位时空存在热能量的多少。当不同强度的“热能”作用于“实体”时,使“实体状态”出现粒子性,从而出现具有原子结构的物理态,使“单一实体状态”向“物质的物理态”发生相变。“热能”对“实体”的作用会改变粒子的大小,促进“粒子”运动速度的变化,从而影响物质物理态的变化。根据“热能”的大小与分解“实体”产生粒子大小成反比关系定律,当单质物质元素“实体”在不同强度的“热能”对其分解作用下会有不同的物理态相变效应的发生,其物质粒子大小依固态、液态、气态、等离子体态、“物质光状态”的顺序依次减小,依次变小的粒子其动能依次增大。固态中粒子最大,动能最小,而在“物质光的状态”的状态时粒子最小,动能最大。“物质光状态”是指“实体”粒子小到其动能足以产生与光同时运动的物理状态。它与热能以电磁辐射的方式传播成为“物质光状态”。一切物质元素在一定热能的催化作用下都能化为“物质光的状态”,以这种物理状态的方式在宇宙空间中传播。这种“物质光的状态”就是热能作用在恒星物质上使恒星出现物理态相变成为“物质光状态”,从而导至恒星发生大爆炸,这就是超新星发生大爆炸的原因。

以上就是物质世界粒子产生本质原因的认识。也是本文关于强“热能”对“实体”发生作用,能够使“实体”分解形成粒子无穷小的新认识论。关于粒子在热能的作用下如何形成原子的新认识论,见粒子电荷动态原子模型新认识论1


4. 反物质存在的否定

反物质发现的回顾【4:1932年8月2日,美国物理学家安德森在宇宙射线实践中发现了正电子。此后不久,英国的布莱克特在英格兰也证实了这个发现。在正电子发现23年之后,美国的张伯伦发现了反质子。此后,人们又发现了一系列的反粒子。

从这些反物质的发现和认识看,无非是发现了带有正电荷性的电子和带有负电荷性的质子。依粒子带有正负电荷性判断反物质的存在,对这种反物质认识论还要从正负电荷的认识论谈起。


4.1.通过实验事实对正负电荷定义性固定模式思想认识的反思

相同物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验事实,对电子得失理论的直接冲击【1】,让我们不得不反思正负电荷定义性固定模式的思想认识是否走在自然科学真理的轨道上,这个问题值得我们认真的思考。

目前对正负电荷定义性固定模式的思想认识是:人们把丝绸和玻璃棒摩擦后玻璃棒带电叫正电荷性;人们把用毛皮和橡胶棒摩擦后橡胶棒带电叫负电荷性。这个认识是根据实验事实沿着“唯象论”法则建立起来的对正负电荷定义性固定模式的思想认识,这种对于正负电荷定义性固定模式的思想认识,由于缺乏科学理论的指导,将严重阻碍我们对粒子所带正负电荷性本质原因的揭示,使我们无法揭示粒子正负电荷性产生的本质原因,从而不利于揭示粒子正负电荷性产生的原因以及揭示原子结构的形成原因,更不利于对物质万有引力本质原因的揭示。

从作者发展E.Edlund(瑞典科学院物理学家)对电荷本质深刻认识的思想【5】,使我们对物质世界的认识更深入了一步。从物质世界由两种基本类型物质属性“实体”和“热能”构成的新认识角度看:当“实体”中“热能”过剩时物质表现为带正电荷现象。当“实体”中“热能”缺乏时物质表现为带负电荷现象。当“实体”中“热能”饱和时物质表现为中性电荷现象。

这种新观点能够解释全部静电效应1,优于目前电子得失的理论只适用于解释不同物质间摩擦起电现象,而不适用解释相同物质间摩擦产生同性电荷的实验事实。这种新思想不仅仅能够揭示物质的带电荷现象,而且能够对粒子带电荷现象产生的原因有一个比较清楚的理论认识,从而有利于揭示原子结构的形成原因和万有引力的本质原因【1】。沿着这条物质世界基本构成的新理论研究下去,将有利于揭示摆在我们面前的诸多科学难题!


4.2.物质世界不存在反物质

本文认为:电子、中子、质子这些不同大小的粒子,只是“热能”对“实体”分解作用产生不同的大小粒子现象,这些粒子所带的正负电荷性现象,只是这些不同大小的“实体”粒子内含的“热能”不平衡时显现的粒子带有的正负电荷特性现象。即:负电子是微小粒子“实体”中“热能”缺乏时表现的负电荷特性,所谓正电子只是微小粒子“实体”中“热能”过剩时表现的正电荷特性。正质子是较大的粒子“实体”中“热能”过剩时表现的正电荷特性,所谓负质子只是较大粒子“实体”中“热能”缺乏时表现的负电荷特性,并非什么反物质存在的现象。从这种理论意义上说,我们目前反物质的寻找完全没有必要。对反物质的认识只是我们对电荷本质认识思想上出现了问题,在没有弄清楚粒子正负电荷产生的原因情况下,而去盲目寻求反物质的存在,因此本文认为任何寻找反物质的工作都将毫无意义!

总之,根据上述“热能”对“实体”的作用能够分解“实体”粒子大小的新认识,以及根据《21世纪物理学新理论体系》一文中对正负电荷本质认识的新观点,即:当“实体”粒子“热能”过剩时就表现为带正电荷特性,当“实体”粒子热能缺乏时就表现为带负电荷特性,因此正电子、负质子这些所谓的反物质只不过是不同大小“实体”粒子与“热能”结合状态不平衡时表现出来的带有正负电荷特性现象,因此物质世界根本就不存在什么反物质,一切寻找反物质的工作都将毫无意义!


5. 21世纪物理学新理论体系对当前重要物理观点的新认识


5.1. “物质光的状态”是第五物理态的新认识

根据物质不灭守恒定律认识转失物质质量的光态,就是物质第五物理态——“物质光的状态”。大家知道物质世界物理四态:固态、液态、气态、等离子体态都可称为物质凝聚四态。近代物理研究中对光态存在粒子性得到了充分的肯定,从物质既不会创生也不会灭失认识转失凝聚态物质质量的大量事实,例如:等离子体辉光炬、裂聚变反应、各种宇宙射线、放射性物质放射线以及具有自然性、可燃性、助燃性特点的不同物质在一定条件下发生的燃烧现象,可以认识到这些光态中包括不可见光,都存在着以光态形式发射转移凝聚各态物质元素现象。这样根据物质守恒定律,分析凝聚态物质质量转化为“物质光的状态”的现象是否是物质物理的一种存在状态,我们有必要澄清。

当各种物质元素单质相变到气态都可以通过三种电离方式(热电离、光电离、碰撞电离)使气体成为等离子体、从等离子体研究事实看,通过热电离方式加热各种元素气体形成等离子体,存在着不同临界温度点,当加热到20000 K以上时,几乎所有气体均高度电离,这是一切物质元素在高温条件下形成等离子体的普遍特征。

大家知道等离子体是电子和离子分离的凝聚态物质状态,这种状态由于受到不能形成全发射的条件限制,例如容器条件的限制,又如地球引力的作用对大气层空间存在的等离子体的限制,使大气层空间存在的等离子体不能形成向宇宙空间全发射。这种等离子体准确的说是约束状态等离子体态,是物质呈现的凝聚性等离子体物质第四态。而在太空中则不一样,火箭推进剂燃烧以“物质光的状态”形式向宇宙空间中传播。当等离子体约束状态条件解除,发生等离子体辐射物质现象,这种状态不能称为约束性等离子体态,可见,等离子体约束态和等离子体非约束态,是物质凝集态和非凝聚态两种物质存在状态,不应该都归结为等离子体状态。“物质光的状态”是以光态物质的方式以电磁辐射全发射携带“光态物质”运行的状态。这种“物质光的状态”并不是“实体”转化为“能量”的现象,而是物质以“物质光的状态”形式存在的一种物理状态,它是高于约束等离子体物理第四态性质的第五种物理态。这种“物质光的状态”范围是从解体凝聚态形成“物质光的状态”伴随电磁辐射全发射的开始,直至“物质的光态”停止运动终止。

总之太阳光线、燃烧辉光、裂聚变辉光、放射性物质射线、各种宇宙射线,一切有“实体”存在的电磁辐射就是“物质光的状态”,在电磁辐射中共同运行的物质就是“光态物质”,它是物质存在的第五物理态,“物质光的状态”也是物理态的极限状态。没有物质“实体”存在的纯电磁辐射光不能称为“物质光的状态”物理态。单纯电磁辐射光大多数是冷光源,如萤火虫发出的萤光就是没有“光态实体”的单纯电磁辐射光,这种光不能称为物质光的状态。再如太空中1吨火箭推进剂燃烧后发出的1吨物质光的状态,这种光态就是物质以光态形式存在的物质第五物理态--“物质光的状态”。总之,存在物质质量特征的电磁辐射光,这种“物质光的状态”就是物质存在的第五物质态,也可称为物质的第五物理态。而没有“光态物质”存在的光就只是单纯的电磁辐射光,这种光中不存在“实体”,因此这种单纯的电磁辐射光不是“物质光的状态”,它不是物质的第五物理态。


5.2   恒星不是由氢氦物质元素构成也不是什么核反应的新认识

“物质光的状态”是星球在太空中发生大爆炸解体需要达到的物理态。《21世纪物理学新理论体系》【1】观点认为恒星液态或气态相变不是什么核反应的原因形成,而是因为恒星质量巨大,恒星“实体”从外太空向心凝聚“热能”引力效应,将恒星自身加热成液态或气态,这也是地球核心出现高温相变效应的产生原因。当恒星将自身物质加热到超过“物质光的状态”临界温度点时,恒星将在太空中发生大爆炸,这就是超新星爆发的原因,发生大爆炸后的恒星物质将以“物质光的状态”的形式向宇宙空间扩散传播。“黑洞实体球星”可称为截止超新星爆炸后在太空中发生连锁反应的终极灭火器。有宇宙“黑洞实体球星”的存在,才使我们整个宇宙出现各星系各恒星之间平衡和谐的安宁【6-7】!

本文观点认为恒星和我们的地球一样都是由多元素构成,我们现理论认为所有恒星都是核反应都是由氢氦元素构成,这是一个错误的认识论。而真实的原因是因为恒星质量巨大,从外太空向心凝聚热能引力效应将恒星自身加热成液态或气态,使恒星成为液态或气态的恒星。得出恒星都是氢氦构成论的原因是对星光谱的误判。大家都知道每种元素都有特征谱线,由于氢氦元素是排列在元素周期表最前面第一位和第二位的元素,因此当各种元素相变成“物质状态光”时,由于氢氦元素相变为“物质状态光”的临界温度点最低,因此发出的特征谱线也是最强的,这样当我们通过元素特征谱线分析恒星元素的构成时,就会根据恒星氢氦元素光谱分析得出恒星都是由氢氦元素构成的。对于这种错误的判断,我打个通俗的比喻大家就明白了:根据前述对“物质光的状态”的认识,按元素周期表由前向后的排列顺序,每种元素相变到“物质光的状态”时的辉光临界温度点依次增高,由于氢氦元素相变到“物质光的状态”的辉光临界温度点最低,因此当一颗由99%的铁元素和1%的氢氦元素构成的恒星,在这颗恒星将自身加热到1000度(铁:熔点是1538)时,由于这颗恒星99%的铁元素还处于固态,铁元素没有“物质光的状态”的星光谱发出,而这颗只有1%氢氦元素构成的恒星,早就释放了强烈的带有氢氦元素的星光谱。这时当我们利用这颗恒星发出的星光谱分析这颗恒星元素的构成时,就会得出这颗恒星是由100%氢氦元素构成的错误判断。而真实由99%铁元素构成的这颗恒星,由于自身加热到1000度时铁元素还处于固态状态,没有铁元素“物质光的状态”星光谱的出现,这样就造成了我们根据这颗恒星的星光谱分析得出这颗恒星是由氢氦元素构成的错误认识。

总之,新理论体系观点认为所有恒星和我们地球一样都是由多种元素构成,并非只是氢氦元素构成,我们观察的星光谱显示所有恒星都是由氢氦元素构成的原因是,根据本文对“物质光的状态”的认识,所有物质元素在一定温度条件下都能相变成“物质光的状态”,氢氦元素由于是排列在元素周期表的第一位和第二位,因此氢氦元素变成“物质光的状态”时的临界温度点最低,从而所有恒星光谱显示最强的就是氢氦元素光谱,从而就造成让我们都误认为恒星都是由氢氦元素构成。恒星液态或气态结构不是什么核反应(注:重元素高温热能产生的原因见【1】),它只是由于自身物质“实体”质量庞大吸收外太空集聚的热能较多,将自身加热成为液态或气态,使恒星成为液态或气态的星球【1】。


6. 21世纪物理学新理论体系》新思想的综述和演绎

目前对物质世界的构成认识是:物质世界由粒子构成,粒子不同叠加数量在原子中的区别性构成了物质世界的各种物质元素,例如氢元素,原子核内只有一个质子,原子核外只有一个电子。其它元素只是电子数量和质子数量迭加数量的不同。按照目前的理论认识:只要我们能够掌握向原子核注入不同数量的质子和向原子核外注入不同数量的电子,这一技术就能制造出世界上一切物质元素。这种理论框架下:所有物质元素都只是粒子数量的不同,这种理论归根结底是一种东西的构成论。这种在粒子基点上认识物质世界的方法无法揭示物质世界粒子产生的原因和原子结构的形成原因。而物质世界由两种基本类型“热能”和“实体”构成新认识论,将能够揭示物质世界粒子产生的原因和原子结构的形成原因【7】。并根据每一种元素代表不同“实体”的认识观点,避免了物质世界单一构成论。关于每种元素代表不同“实体”的认识论,详见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》第二部分:物质世界的新基本认识论【1】。

我们现在认识到的“物质世界”是由基本单位“原子”构成的“物质世界”。因此既然新理论体系提出“实体”和“热能”结合构成物质世界,那么就必须回答“实体”和“热能”如何相互作用才能产生物质世界基本单位“原子”的问题。关于“物质世界”基本单位“原子”如何产生这一重要问题的答案,见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》文章的第二部分中的“粒子电荷动态原子模型”【1】,这个“粒子电荷动态原子模型”阐述的就是“实体”与“热能”相互作用具体产生“原子”的形成过程,它揭示了“实体”与“热能”相互作用产生“原子”的真正原因。这个新的“粒子电荷动态原子模型”回答了“物质世界”基本单位“原子”产生和形成的原因。本文提出根据“粒子电荷动态原子模型”新观点,对各种物质元素原子结构应当以原子核外电子从原子核中溢出的频率和电子群体数量的方式来表达,而不应当用几个质子和几个电子的个数方式来表示。新表达方式的介绍详见《21世纪物理学研究新视野》【7】。

21世纪物理学新理论体系》认为:物质世界由两种基本类型物质属性“实体”和物质属性“热能”构成:“物质属性”是指物质的组成部分,“物质属性”单一存在不能称为物质,物质是“实体”和“热能”结合的产物,所有“物质”中都含有热能,没有“热能”存在的“单一实体”不能称为“物质”,黑洞中这种“单一实体”,它是没有原子结构的“实体物理态”,本文称为“黑洞实体球星”。分布在宇宙空间中的3K宇宙温度“热能”就是独立存在于宇宙空间中的“单一热能”。独立存在于宇宙空间中的3K“热能”是阻碍星光在宇宙空间中传播时出现衰减现象的原因。当“热能”和“实体”结合的状态不平衡时物质显现带有不同的正负电荷性。当“热能”和“实体”结合时随着热能量的逐步增高“热能”将会分解“实体”粒子微化程度不断增高,以至于可达到粒子的微化程度无限小,物质世界存在着:“热能”大小与分解“实体”粒子成反比关系的定律,从而改变物质的物理态发生相变,其顺序是:“单一实体”的物理状态;固态;液态;气态;等离子体态;物质光态。当“物质光态”进入“实体态”后就能使“实体”再次相变成为“固态”从而又进入物质物理态的下一个循环【7】。

本文认为企图用寻找物质世界最小单位粒子的方法来揭示物质世界构成的奥秘,是沿“唯象论”法则发展出的一套认识物质世界构成的方法,这是犯了方法性和方向性的错误。今后随着人类增强高电压强热能技术手段的不断提高,热能分解实体成微粒子化的趋势将永远没有尽头,不仅仅是我们现在所认识到的介子、强子、胶子、层子、轻子,以及100多种的奇异粒子。我们将会发现更多的微小粒子,我们永远也不能找到物质世界最小单位的粒子。因此本文认为一切探索物质世界最小粒子的工作努力都将是徒劳的。如果我们继续用这些不同质量的粒子采用定义性固定模式的思想认识,即用各种定义性的方法解释诸多粒子学说,如:介子、强子、胶子、层子、轻子,以及未来将要命名的无数“N子”、“X子”,用于解释原子核中存在的各种粒子,势必造成对原子核结构中诸多粒子存在认识的一片混乱。根据《21世纪物理学新理论体系》新理论观点,根据“热能”的大小与分解“实体”产生粒子大小成反比关系定律,以及正负电荷产生原因的新认识,将会对大小不一100多种各种奇异粒子及其所带电荷性,有一个简单清晰的认知【7】。人类再也不会对大量奇异粒子而茫然了!

综上所述,新理论是以物质世界存在着两种不同的物质属性“实体”和“热能”为基点,从这两种不同物性之间相互作用关系角度对物质世界的新认识。这种新认识论能够揭示粒子产生的原因和原子结构的形成原因以及物质万有引力物质万有斥力产生的原因。新理论体系对元素周期表存在多种元素“实体”的新认识观念是物质多种实体构成论【1】。它不是简单叠加粒子数量的元素构成论。新理论体系中对元素的认识是:铀元素质子即使放到铁原子中也改变不了铀元素质子的物理化学特性!各元素实体粒子具有各种“实体”粒子自身的物理化学特性。这种理论框架下各种元素原子中的粒子都是由各不相同物理化学特性的“实体”粒子构成。这种理论框架下“物质中的实体”代表“物质的质量”,“物质中的热能”代表“物质的能量”。


7. 对宇宙和银河体系的新认识论


7.1. 宇宙中超巨大黑洞存在的原因

根据上述“物质光的状态”是星球产生大爆炸的物理态认识,由于黑洞是由“单一实体”构成。虽然它不是物质“固态”原子物理态,但它是比“固态”原子物理态更加稳定的物理态,这种物理态不能直接形成“物质光的状态”,不会出现因恒星相变成“物质光的状态”而产生大爆炸解体的问题,所以“黑洞实体球星”质量可以无限的增大,这样就在宇宙空间中出现了超极巨大的宇宙“黑洞”实体星现象,这就是宇宙中能够存在超极大“黑洞”,即宇宙中存在超极大的黑洞实体“球星”现象的原因。


7.2. 银河系“黑洞实体球星”具有强大凝聚引力的原因

银河系体系结构的中心是一个超大质量的“黑洞实体”。根据新的理论体系[1],物质是“实体”和“热能”结合的产物。“实体”与“热能”具有结合的特征。因此,由“单一实体”组成的“黑洞实体球星”具有很强的“热能”吸收引力特性。由于物质“星”的组成中含有热能,位于星系中心的超大“黑洞实体球星”吸收着宇宙超大系统空间的热能,这样就形成了对星系中所有物质恒星和天体构成了向心凝聚引力的效应。因此,银河系依靠“黑洞实体球星”将所有物质恒星和天体凝聚成一个独立的银河系的星系体系结构。


7.3. “黑洞单一实体球星”相变成物质态的生成机制

黑洞是一颗“单一实体球星”,虽然这种“单一实体物理态”不能直接形成“物质光的状态”出现大爆炸的问题,但由于“黑洞实体球星”具有吸收热能的特性,这样会造成“黑洞实体球星”的外表面由于“热能”不断的增加,而向“固态”物理态的转变,使得“黑洞实体球星”表面不断有物质态的生成。这样当在“单一实体”黑洞的外表面不断生成的物质数量聚集较多时,物质体就会从“单一实体”黑洞表面分离出来(物质体脱离具体原因后面论述),并根据逃逸的质量大小,从而诞生出不同质量的:恒星、行星、小行星、彗星等各种我们已知的天体。随着从“黑洞实体球星”逃逸出来的“星体”和其它天体数量的增加,形成了围绕“黑洞实体球星”转动的银河系天体结构。“黑洞实体球星”其实就是通过吸收宇宙超大系统空间的热能,将自身“实体”不断加热生成物质形成星系物质的过程,直到“黑洞实体球星”逐步缩小消失,即当银河系中心的“黑洞实体球星”整体大部分都相变成原子物质物理态,并从“黑洞实体球星”上脱离后,就会发生银河系中心“黑洞实体球星”引力逐渐下降直至消失,从而导至银河系发生解体,解体后银河系所有物质“星”将向宇宙更大空间扩散,从而造成这一时空出现物质大动荡。


7.4. 银河系中心“黑洞实体球星”释放含有热能物质“星体”的机制

对于上述观点有人会提出质疑,既然“黑洞实体球星”巨大的吸热引力怎么还能发出“星体”?本文认为如果黑洞“单一实体”只具有强大的吸热引力,那么银河系所有恒星包括我们的地球早就都被银河系中心的“黑洞实体球星”吞噬掉了,因此我认为黑洞吸收热能构成强大引力的同时,也有一个释放热能的机制。原子星(恒星、行星)依靠的是通过质子释放电磁热能,从而形成恒星(行星)进出热能的平衡机制【1】。 而黑洞由于是“单一实体”构成,没有质子的存在,不能通过质子释放电磁辐射热能的方式来释放热能。因此本文认为“黑洞实体球星”释放热能是通过释放含有热能的“星体”的机制来完成热能的释放,从而就出现了从“黑洞实体球星”外表面释放出含有热能各类“星体”,使“黑洞单一实体”保持进入和放出的热能平衡。


7.5. 银河系每一条旋臂带都是由“黑洞实体球星”前赴后继延绵不断沿这一路径释放各类“星”形成

由于“黑洞”是由“单一实体”构成的,它具有很强的吸热能力。当大量热能进入黑洞的“单一实体”时,具有原子结构力的“物质”会出现在外表面,使“黑洞实体”的外表面复活为固体物质。随着热能收集量的增加,外表面会出现大量的物质。由于“黑洞”是一个没有动能的“单一实体”,当大量具有动能和热能的物质体出现在外表面上时,由于“物质体间存在引力和斥力平衡间距的作用规律”,在较大体量“物质体”间就会出现强大的相互排斥作用力。比如一个恒星体量的“物质体”与“黑洞实体”表面的物质在发生相斥作用力时,“黑洞”就会将这颗“恒星”斥离“黑洞实体星”的外表面,这样这颗“恒星”就成为“黑洞”诞生的一颗新星。逃逸黑洞“星”的质量与黑洞从宇宙中吸收的热能所产生的物质量有关。因此,根据逃逸质量的大小黑洞就诞生了恒星、行星、小行星、彗星、星云的现象。由于“黑洞星”附近区域有许多新诞生的“星”出现,因此星系中心的“星”密集度非常高。

每一颗刚刚从“黑洞实体”表面分离出来的物质体都是一颗新星。在诞生的恒星间由于存在着“引力斥力平衡间距规律”,使得一颗恒星推动着另一颗恒星,每一颗恒星带领着本恒星系群离开“黑洞实体”,一个一个的排列前仆后继、延绵不断、浩浩荡荡,这样就形成了巨大银河系旋臂带的效应。银河系4条巨大的旋臂环绕带(见图1),就是“黑洞实体”表面按先后顺序分离出来的恒星一个紧跟一个顶离出来的路径。即旋臂带是按照从母星先后发射出来的排列顺序一颗恒星推动另一颗恒星,这样前仆后继浩浩荡荡延绵不断就形成了巨大旋臂带的效应,旋臂带上的”星“都遵循引力斥力平衡间距规律围绕着“黑洞实体”转动!从而就形成了壮观的银河星系旋臂体系结构。

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在这种理论框架下认识银河系旋臂,银河系旋臂带末端”星“元素的构成就是“黑洞实体”初态时最外表层“实体”元素的构成。在银河系“黑洞实体”起点附近的星球就是“黑洞实体”刚刚诞生的新星,而靠近银河系边缘的星球则是较早脱离“黑洞实体”出现的古老星球。假设这一观点走在自然科学真理的轨道上,那么处在一条旋臂末端在银河系边缘的太阳恒星就是银河系中心早期诞生的一颗古老恒星,太阳系的所有卫星都是大致同一时期与太阳一起从“黑洞实体”中分离出来的。


7.6. 银河系的形成机制和银河系的归宿

银河星系的形成机制:银河系初态仅仅是一颗没有卫星超大质量的“黑洞实体球星”(指:银河系形成之前)。这颗巨大质量的“黑洞实体球星”从宇宙空间逐步吸收热能,将“黑洞单一实体”通过不断加热相变成“物质”,逐步消减“黑洞单一实体”,消减“黑洞实体”相变成物质形成环绕银核的物质态“星”球,从而生成银河系星系体系结构。

银河星系最后的归宿:通过“黑洞实体球星”不断吸收热能不断的沿着旋臂路径放出物质星球,最终生成旋臂结构的银河系。因此银河系就是银河系中心“黑洞实体球星”相变成物质星球后的膨胀过程。银河系所有恒星和天体都是从“黑洞实体”的表面分离出来的。这个过程是“黑洞实体球星”从外太空吸收热能在“黑洞实体球星”外表面生成物质所至,“黑洞实体球星”吸收的热能越多分离“黑洞实体球星”外表面的“实体”形成物质的速度就越快,直到通过“黑洞实体球星”不断的在太空中吸收热能,最终将“单一实体”全部转变成“物质态”。这时银河系凝聚引力下降银河系将发生解体,解体后银河系所有物质恒星和天体将向宇宙扩散,从而造成这一时空出现物质大动荡,这就是银河系的归宿。

总之,银河系形成机制是超大质量的“黑洞实体球星”通过“黑洞单一实体”吸收宇宙热能生成物质的过程,黑洞“星”初始状态的总质量等于星系形成后所有天体总质量的之合。银河系形成机制是“单一实体状态”转变成“物质态”的过程。


7.7. 宇宙是由每一个“宇宙物质时空单元”构造形成的猜想

从上述观点看星系中心“黑洞实体球星”越小这个星系越容易解体。当星系中心有一颗超大“黑洞实体”时,它就是一个稳定的星系,或者说是星系形成的初态。或许我们的宇宙有无数个不可见还没有形成星系的巨大“黑洞实体球星”。本文观点认为“热能”就是“能量”,“单一热能”本文称为“正能态”,“单一实体”称为负能态。巨大的“黑洞实体球星”之间由于都是掠夺“热能”的“单一实体”负能态,因此“黑洞实体球星”之间由于都具有相互掠夺“热能”的特性,因此就造成了“黑洞实体球星”之间具有相互避让回避排斥作用力的效应,这相当于负电荷之间的斥力效应。正是因为宇宙巨大“黑洞实体球星”之间存在着这种相互排斥作用力,因此宇宙中由“黑洞实体球星”分割着宇宙中“实体”存在的空间!每一个“黑洞实体球星”代表着分割宇宙“实体”空间的一个独立单元,可称为“宇宙实体时空单元”,因为“黑洞实体球星”最终相变成物质星体系统,因此“宇宙实体时空单元”又可称为“宇宙物质时空单元”。在每一个“黑洞实体球星”分割形成的“宇宙物质时空单元”中不一定全部都是3K的宇宙温度热能!

总之,由每一个“黑洞实体球星”分割形成的“宇宙物质时空单元”可能就是“宇宙的一个单元”,宇宙就是由这样的无数个“宇宙物质时空单元”构成的无边无际。由于“黑洞实体球星”是“单一实体”无热能的负能态“无光体”,宇宙究竟存在着多少不可视的初态“黑洞实体球星”,我们由于无法观测“宇宙物质时空单元”的多少,因此我们无法通过可视性观测到宇宙的大小,我们只能说能够观测到可视宇宙的大小。在不可视宇宙中“宇宙物质时空单元”初态“黑洞实体球星”究竟有多少数量将是唯物主义永恒难解的自然之谜!


8. 结束语

虽然本文不能回答“实体”和“热能”是如何产生的,也不能回答宇宙中有多少“热能”和“实体”,也不能回答我们的宇宙有多大。但这比从粒子的角度理解物质世界更深入了一步。这一《21世纪物理学新理论体系》是从物质世界有两种不同的基本类型和具有两种不同物理性质的“热能”与“实体”相互作用关系的角度来深入认识物质世界。这一新的理论体系可以进一步揭示粒子和原子结构形成的原因,以及物质引力和斥力产生的原因。它将能够揭示更多目前理论难以解释的科学问题[1][7]

本文是对《21世纪物理学新理论体系》的综述和演绎,是对银河体系结构形成原因的新认识论以及宇宙组成单元的新认识论。关于《21世纪物理学新理论体系》更多的新思想请参见文献【1-3】【6-7】。


9. 参考文献

[1]   Jiang Hua Zhou. New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. 2020 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1634 012103. IOP Publishing.DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1634/1/012103

\[2]    Jiang Hua Zhou. Reveal the cause of the formation of gravity. The sixth Chinese Symposium on new photoelectric detection technology and its application. Beijing. December 3-5,   2019.   © (2020) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2564978

[3] Jiang Hua Zhou. Revolution in basic research of Physics Will usher in a new era in the study of interstellar space vehicles. London(ICIEI 2020): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Education Innovations July 2020 .Pages,P:89–95. Publisher: Association for Computing MachineryNew YorkNYUnited States.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3411681.3411687

[4]   申先甲、张锡鑫、祁有龙,编著。物理学史简编。中国山东教育出版社。1985年。

[5]   宋玉升、李新章、惠和兴、汪康懋等译。诺贝尔奖获得者演讲集,物理学(第一卷)。中国科学出版社,1985年。

[6]   周江华。物质光态存在是物理第五物质态吗?潜科学,1990(5):713页。

[7]   周江华。21世纪物理学研究新视野。中国吉林:科学技术出版社,2005年:第1-241页。


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The challenge of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century to the popular views of physics in the world


        Jiang Hua Zhou                                                                  P.O. Box 2-3-2403, hai bi tai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China 066000.Tel:0086-18003352823.E-mail:1092375690@qq.com


Abstract. This paper is based on the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century published by the British Physical Society IOP Journal of physics in 2020. It is a challenge to some popular views of physics today! It negates the big bang theory, general relativity, epistemology of gravitational wave existence, and epistemology of antimatter existence. It denies the research method of relying on the electron Collider to find the smallest particle in the material world! It is put forward that "the state of matter light" is the epistemology of the fifth physical state; stars are not composed of hydrogen and helium, nor are they nuclear reactions; the formation reason of Galactic System and the epistemology of cosmic unit. This paper is a summary and deduction of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century.

key words: physics; new theoretical system; popularity; viewpoint; challenge.


Introduction

This paper is based on the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century published by the British Physical Society IOP Journal of physics in 2020. It is a challenge to some popular views of physics today[1-3]: ① The negation of the big bang theory. ② The general relativity is a completely wrong fallacy to explain gravity by the bending of time and space. ③ The electron collider will never be able to find the smallest particle in the material world. ④ The negation of antimatter existence. ⑤ It is proposed that "the state of matter light" is the epistemology of the fifth physical state, and that stars are neither composed of hydrogen and helium nor nuclear reaction. ⑥ The summary and deduction of new ideas in the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. ⑦ A new epistemology of the universe and the Galactic system. ⑧ Conclusion.


1. The negation of the big bang theory

Review of "the big bang theory": the big bang theory holds that the universe was formed by a dense and hot singularity after a big bang 13.7 billion years ago. In 1927, Belgian astronomer and cosmologist Georges Lema î tre put forward the big bang hypothesis for the first time. In 1929, the American astronomer Hubble proposed the Hubble's law that the redshift of galaxies is directly proportional to the distance between galaxies according to the hypothesis, and deduced the cosmic expansion theory that galaxies are far away from each other. No matter from 1922, American astronomer Edwin Hubble began to observe the "redshift phenomenon", the view of "cosmic expansion" began to form. In 1929, Edwin Hubble made a landmark discovery: no matter which direction you look, distant galaxies are rapidly moving away from us. He believes that the lengthening of light waves is due to the expansion of the universe[4].   All the above judgments about galaxies (stars) moving away from us are nothing more than the fact that the starlight appears the phenomenon of attenuation redshift! At present, the reason for the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift is that people think that stars are moving away from us. No one has ever thought that the attenuation and redshift of starlight emitted by stars is caused by other factors? This is an important thinking about whether the popular view of physics in the world "Big Bang cosmology" is correct! Only by combing the scientific cognition according to the facts can we better walk on the track of natural science truth and make the scientific civilization of human progress continuously.

In February 1902, the "white night effect" which is not conducive to the long-distance propagation of radio waves was found between porthew and ferraderfiea on the American route[4]. It is found that the propagation range of electromagnetic waves at night is more than twice as large as that in the daytime. It can be found that the variation of high and low temperature of "thermal medium" during the day and night is the damping drag which causes the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the propagation path Therefore, it can be inferred that "3K space temperature thermal energy" is the real reason for the red shift phenomenon of starlight attenuation, which is the most powerful proof of electromagnetic wave attenuation caused by thermal medium damping in the propagation path. Therefore, this paper holds that the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift caused by stars leaving us is a wrong judgment. The real reason is that the existence of "3K space temperature thermal energy" causes the attenuation redshift phenomenon of starlight in the propagation path, so the attenuation redshift phenomenon of starlight can not represent that the stars are leaving us. At present, it is a wrong judgment to assume that all stars are leaving us just by the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift. According to such a wrong understanding, the theory of the Big Bang is a completely wrong fallacy. No matter which direction you look, distant galaxies are rapidly moving away from us. Is our earth the center of the universe? Is our earth the starting point of the big bang? This theology that all things in the universe are created out of nothing by a singularity explosion is not a materialist scientific attitude. The big bang theory is a wrong fallacy!

In order to introduce the new viewpoint that the current in conductor and electromagnetic radiation in space are the same essential attribute, "heat energy" is the "resistance" on the propagation path of "electromagnetic radiation", please refer to part V: new epistemology of electric field [1] of new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century for details.


2. The explanation of universal gravitation by space-time curvature in general relativity is totally wrong

The so-called space-time bending gravitational effect is a theory made up to explain why planets revolve around stars and why galaxies are planar systems. The space-time bending effect holds that: the mutual attraction between celestial bodies is more like being on a cloth, the massive celestial bodies will bend the surrounding space-time, and the small celestial bodies will fall into this space-time when they are close, and keep relatively stable orbit under the action of centrifugal force. Einstein also explained: if a massive celestial body bends space-time, the light around it will change its path and deflect at a certain angle when it passes by. This is the famous Einstein's theory of space-time bending gravitational effect.

When we use the curvature of space-time to explain the phenomenon of gravity, we can't even answer the simple question why people are attracted by the earth and why the earth's matter condenses in space. The curvature of space-time has no scientific significance to the explanation theory of gravitation. It is just a sophistry to explain why planets revolve around stars!   When the "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century" perfectly reveals the causes of gravitational and repulsive forces in the material world, it is no longer necessary to use the sophistry of space-time bending to explain why planets revolve around stars and why galaxies are planar systems. For detailed discussion, see "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century", Part II: new basic epistemology of material world, Part III: new epistemology of gravitational repulsive field of material world [1]. The main contents are as follows:   According to the new epistemology of "atomic model of particle charge dynamics", it is considered that the absorption and release of heat energy by matter is the source of attraction and repulsion of all matter. According to the new understanding of universal gravitation, different mass "entities" have different ability to absorb heat energy, resulting in different gravitational effects. As a huge "entity", stars have a huge demand for "heat energy", which is reflected in the absorption of "heat energy" by stars in the space of cosmic super system (such as solar system) to meet the strong demand of stars for "heat energy". Due to the great difference in mass between stars and planets, and the fact that the matter of planets contains heat, the gravitational force formed by the heat absorption of stars controls the planets. At the same time, according to the law of equilibrium distance of gravitational force and repulsive force between "stars" and "stars", planets become the satellites of stars. In the stellar system, due to the mutual dependence of gravitation and repulsion between planets, all planets in the stellar system are in the same plane system structure. The plane system structure of galactic star formation is the same principle.

In a word, the phenomenon of planets rotating around stars and the formation of plane system effect are not the explanation of gravity by the so-called space-time bending theory. This is due to the huge mass difference between stars and planets. Planets are controlled by the strong gravitation formed by the heat absorption of stars. Under the balance distance law of gravitation and repulsion between stars and planets, the planets rotate around the stars. In the stellar system, due to the mutual dependence of gravitation and repulsion between planets, the plane structure effect of planets is formed.

According to the new theory, the "law of equilibrium distance between gravitation and repulsion forces" among stars (between planets) is that because the electromagnetic energy released between stars is large, the equilibrium distance between stars is also large. The balance distance between the planets is relatively small, because the electromagnetic energy released between the planets is relatively small. Under this theoretical framework, the "emission magnetic field strength" (Universal repulsive force) and "absorption thermal energy ability" (Universal Gravitation) of stars in the universe, as well as the distance between stars, follow the "law of balance distance between gravitation and repulsive force" between stars, determine the dynamic equilibrium position of stars in the universe, thus forming the equilibrium state of each star in the whole universe.

The new theoretical system holds that the existence of "law of universal gravitation" depends on the absorption of "heat energy" between matter,In short, the absorption of heat energy by matter is the gravitation of matter. Therefore, gravitation is the inward attraction of matter to absorb heat energy. Stars (planets) which are made up of matter can not emit gravitational waves into outer space. The new viewpoint holds that in the material world, only repulsive waves are released from stars (planets) into outer space, and stars (planets) will never emit gravitational waves into outer space. Because the gravitation of matter is caused by inward heat absorption, there is no outward emission force. The so-called discovery of gravitational waves is a misjudgment that the repulsive waves emitted by stars are regarded as gravitational waves, and it is a wrong understanding on the premise that we do not know the essential principle of the universal gravitation of matter.   As for the principle of repulsive wave produced by stars, please refer to the third part of "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century": the chapter of new epistemology of gravitational repulsive field of material world [1].

In the famous comparative astronomical phenomena of total solar eclipse and no total solar eclipse, it is found that when the total solar eclipse occurs, the stellar light emitted by the background star will shift to the outside of the sun. The new explanation is: when the "total solar eclipse" occurs, the position of the background star will deviate from the sun. This is because the repulsive force between the repulsive wave of starlight emitted by the background star and the repulsive wave of sunlight emitted by the sun produces the effect of mutual repulsive force, which makes the position of the background star light emitted by the star deviate from the sun, so we can observe whether there is a "total solar eclipse" effect Compared with astronomical phenomena, the position of background constellations deviates from the sun. This effect has nothing to do with Einstein's explanation of space-time bending gravity!


3. The electron collider will never be able to find the smallest particle in the material world   

According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, matter is composed of "entity" and "heat energy". This paper holds that when the "entity" particles are decomposed by continuously increasing the high-voltage electromagnetic "heat energy", the phenomenon of infinite decomposition of "entity" particles will appear. Therefore, we can never find the smallest particles in the material world. It will be a futile road to find the smallest particles in the material world through the electron positron collider. With the continuous improvement of the technology of the Electron Positron Collider to enhance the intensity of high-voltage electromagnetic heat energy, more and more tiny particles will be found. This road to explore the smallest particles in the material world will never end. It is not an effective way to find the smallest particles in the material world and reveal the mystery of the universe with the smallest particles in the material world.

With regard to the topic that high thermal energy acts on the entity and can infinitely decompose the "entity" particles, we should start from the generation of particles in the material world and the "blackbody matter" in the black hole. According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, matter is the combination of "entity" and "heat energy", and "entity" and "heat energy" have the characteristics of combination. All substances contain "heat energy". A "pure entity" without "heat energy" can not be called "substance", because "pure entity" can not form the structure of atomic force without the participation of "heat energy" (see [1]). The black hole in the universe is composed of a "single entity". The single entity has a strong absorption of heat energy, so the electromagnetic radiation heat light emitted by stars can be swallowed by the black hole. This is the fundamental reason why the black hole in the universe has light absorption characteristics. In this paper, the "black hole" formed by "single entity" is called "entity" star. This "single entity" without atomic structural force is called "physical state of entity".


3.1. The relationship between the size of "entity" particles and the change of physical state of matter can be infinitely decomposed by high thermal energy acting on "entity"

The origin of the phenomenon that "heat energy" decomposes "entity" to produce particles is as follows: The reason why "heat energy" decomposes "entity" and produces "particle" phenomenon is that it is essentially the internal combination law of "heat energy" and "entity" in the material world. When "entity" appears in the form of "particle", it is beneficial for "entity" to absorb "heat energy". The phenomenon that "entity" decomposes "entity" into "particles" under the action of "heat energy" is actually a natural reaction phenomenon which is beneficial for "entity" to absorb "heat energy". With the increase of heat energy, the "particles" formed by the decomposition of "entity" will become smaller, because the smaller the "entity" particles are, the more "heat" they get. Specifically, the larger the "entity" particles are, the "heat energy" can only be combined with the "entity" on the surface of the large particles, but not with the "entity" inside the large particles. Therefore, the miniaturization of particle granulation, a natural reaction phenomenon, can realize more combination of "heat energy" and "entity". This is why there is a law that the size of "heat energy" in the material world is inversely proportional to the size of particles produced by decomposing "entity".   This is the real reason why the combination of "heat energy" and "entity" can infinitely decompose the size of "entity" particles and never find the smallest "entity" particles.

When the "entity" particles are small enough to be "photons," the, the perfect combination of "heat energy" and "entity" can be realized. At this time, the microminiaturization degree of "entity" has been as small as "material light state" which can run synchronously with electromagnetic radiation. Perhaps photon is not particle state but flow state at all (guess), which may be the reason why photoelectron can not find volume boundary. Later, we will introduce the new understanding of "the state of matter light", which is the fifth physical state of matter.

"Heat energy" is the basic composition of the material world. This kind of material property exists in the cosmic space. 3K cosmic temperature heat energy is the direct evidence of its real existence. It is not "entity", it is "thermal energy", also known as "energy". Thermal energy intensity refers to the amount of thermal energy per unit space-time. When the "heat energy" of different intensities acts on the "entity", the "entity state" appears particle like, thus the physical state with atomic structure appears, and the "single entity state" changes to the "physical state of matter". The effect of "heat energy" on "entity" will change the size of particles, promote the change of "particle" movement speed, and thus affect the change of physical state of matter. According to the law that the size of "heat energy" is inversely proportional to the particle size produced by the decomposition of "entity", when the "entity" of elemental matter is decomposed by different intensity of "heat energy", there will be different physical state phase transition effects. The particle size of substance decreases in the order of solid state, liquid state, gas state, plasma state and material light state The kinetic energy of the particles increases in turn. In the solid state, the particle is the largest and the kinetic energy is the smallest, while in the state of material light, the particle is the smallest and the kinetic energy is the largest. "Physical light state" refers to the physical state in which particles are small enough to produce kinetic energy of particles moving at the same time with light.   It and heat energy propagate in the form of electromagnetic radiation and become "material light state". All material elements can be transformed into "material light state" under the catalysis of a certain amount of heat energy, and propagate in the cosmic space in this way of physical state.   This kind of "material light state" is that the thermal energy acts on the stellar material to make the star appear physical state phase change into "material light state", which leads to the big explosion of the star, which is the reason for the big explosion of supernovae.

The above is the understanding of the essential causes of particles in the material world. It is also the new epistemology of this paper that the strong "heat energy" acts on the "entity" and can make the "entity" decompose into infinitesimal particles . For the new epistemology of how particles form atoms under the action of heat energy, see the new epistemology of particle charge dynamic atomic model [1].


4. The negation of antimatter existence

Review of antimatter discovery [4]: on August 2, 1932, American physicist Anderson discovered positron in cosmic ray practice. Shortly after that, Blatter of England confirmed the discovery in England. Twenty three years after the discovery of positron, chamberlain of the United States discovered antiproton. Since then, a series of antiparticles have been discovered.

From the discovery and understanding of these antimatter, nothing more than the discovery of positively charged electrons and negatively charged protons. Judging the existence of antimatter according to the positive and negative charge of particles, we should also talk about the epistemology of positive and negative charge.


4.1. Reflection on the fixed mode of definition of positive and negative charges through experimental facts

The experimental fact that the same charge is produced by the friction of the same substance has a direct impact on the theory of gain and loss of electrons [1], so we have to rethink whether the fixed mode of positive and negative charges is on the track of the truth of natural science, which is worthy of our serious consideration.

At present, the fixed mode of definition of positive and negative charges is: people call the electrification of glass rod after rubbing silk with glass rod as positive charge; people call the electrification of rubber rod after rubbing fur with rubber rod as negative charge. This understanding is based on the experimental facts and the principle of "phenomenology", which is an ideological understanding of the fixed pattern of positive and negative charges. Due to the lack of guidance of scientific theory, this kind of ideological understanding of the fixed pattern of positive and negative charges will seriously hinder us to reveal the essence of the positive and negative charges of particles, and make us unable to reveal the positive and negative charges of particles Therefore, it is not conducive to reveal the cause of the positive and negative charge of particles, the formation of atomic structure, and the essence of matter gravitation.   

From the author's development of E. Edlund's deep understanding of the essence of charge [5], we have a deeper understanding of the material world. From the point of view of the new understanding that the material world is composed of two basic types of material properties: "entity" and "heat energy":   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is excess, the substance shows a positive charge phenomenon.   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is lacking, the matter shows the phenomenon of negative charge.   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is saturated, the matter behaves as a neutral charge phenomenon.

This new point of view can explain all the electrostatic effects[1], which is superior to the current theory of electron gain and loss. It can only explain the phenomenon of friction electrification between different substances, but not the experimental fact that the same charge is generated by friction between the same substances. This new idea can not only reveal the charged phenomenon of matter, but also have a clear theoretical understanding of the causes of the charged phenomenon of particles, which is conducive to reveal the formation of atomic structure and the essential cause of gravity [1]. Along with the new theory of the basic composition of the material world, it will help to reveal many scientific problems in front of us!


4.2. There is no antimatter in the material world

This paper holds that the particles of different sizes, such as electrons, neutrons and protons, are only the phenomena of particles of different sizes produced by the decomposition of "entity" by "heat energy", and the positive and negative charges of these particles are only the phenomena of positive and negative charges of these particles when the "heat energy" contained in these "entity" particles of different sizes is unbalanced. That is to say, negative electrons are the negative charge characteristics when the "heat energy" in the "entity" of small particles is lacking, while the so-called positron is just the positive charge characteristics when the "heat energy" in the "entity" of small particles is excess. The positive proton is the positive charge characteristic when the "heat energy" in the larger particle "entity" is excess, while the so-called negative proton is the negative charge characteristic when the "heat energy" in the larger particle "entity" is lack, not the phenomenon of antimatter. In this theoretical sense, it is not necessary for us to search for antimatter at present. The understanding of antimatter is only a problem in our understanding of the essence of charge. We blindly seek the existence of antimatter without knowing the cause of the positive and negative charges of particles. Therefore, this paper thinks that any work of looking for antimatter will be meaningless!

In a word, according to the above new understanding that the effect of "heat energy" on "entity" can decompose the size of "entity" particles, and according to the new understanding of the nature of positive and negative charges in the article "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century", that is, when the "heat energy" of "entity" particles is excessive, they show positive charge characteristics, and when the "entity" particles are lack of heat energy, they show negative charge characteristics Therefore, the so-called antimatter such as positrons and negative protons is just a phenomenon with positive and negative charges when the combination state of "entity" particles of different sizes and "heat" is unbalanced. Therefore, there is no antimatter in the material world, and all the work of searching for antimatter will be meaningless!


5. New understanding of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century to the current important physical viewpoints


5.1. New understanding of the fifth physical state of "state of matter light"

According to the law of conservation of matter, the light state of matter is the fifth physical state of matter.   As we all know, the four physical states of the material world: solid state, liquid state, gas state and plasma state can be called the four condensed states of matter. In modern physics research, the existence of particles in light state has been fully affirmed. From the point of view that matter can neither be created nor lost, a large number of facts about the quality of transferred condensed matter have been recognized, such as plasma glow torch, fission fusion reaction, various cosmic rays, radiation of radioactive substances and different substances with natural, combustible and combustion supporting characteristics occur under certain conditions It can be recognized that these light States, including invisible light, have the phenomenon of radiating and transferring condensed matter elements in the form of light state. According to the law of conservation of matter,In this way. It is necessary to clarify whether the phenomenon of condensed matter mass transforming into "the state of matter light" is a state of existence in matter physics.

When all kinds of material elements change into gaseous state, gases can be made into plasma by three kinds of ionization methods (thermal ionization, photoionization and collisional ionization). From the fact of plasma research, there are different critical temperature points when heating all kinds of elemental gases to form plasma by thermal ionization. When heating to more than 20000 K, almost all gases are highly ionized, which is the reason It is a common feature that all material elements form plasma at high temperature.

As we all know, plasma is a state of condensed matter in which electrons and ions are separated. This state is limited by the conditions that can not form a full emission, such as the container conditions, and the effect of the earth's gravity on the plasma existing in the atmospheric space, so that the plasma existing in the atmospheric space can not form a full emission into the cosmic space. This kind of plasma is exactly the confined plasma state, which is the fourth state of condensed plasma matter. But in space, rocket propellant combustion propagates to space in the form of matter light. When the condition of plasma confinement is released, the phenomenon of plasma radiating matter occurs. This state can not be called constrained plasma state. It can be seen that plasma confinement state and plasma non confinement state are two states of matter agglutination state and non condensation state, which should not be attributed to plasma state. Matter light state is the state of carrying "light state matter" in the form of light state matter by electromagnetic radiation total emission. This kind of "matter light state" is not a phenomenon that "entity" is transformed into "energy", but a physical state in the form of "matter light", which is the fifth physical state of matter higher than the fourth physical state of confinement plasma. The range of this kind of material light state is from the disintegration of condensed matter to the formation of material light state accompanied by the total emission of electromagnetic radiation until the material light state stops moving.

In a word, solar ray, combustion glow, fission fusion glow, radioactive material ray, all kinds of cosmic rays, all electromagnetic radiation with "entity" existence is the matter light state, and the matter that runs together in electromagnetic radiation is "light matter", which is the fifth physical state of matter existence, and "matter light state" is also the limit state of physical state. The pure electromagnetic radiation without material "entity" can not be called "material light state" physical state. Most of the pure electromagnetic radiation is cold light source. For example, the fluorescence emitted by fireflies is pure electromagnetic radiation without "light state entity", which can not be called the state of matter light. Another example is the state of 1 ton of material light emitted by 1 ton of rocket propellant burning in space. This light state is the fifth physical state of material in the form of light state -- material light state. In a word, there is electromagnetic radiation light with mass characteristics of matter. This "matter light state" is the fifth matter state of matter, which can also be called the fifth physical state of matter. The light without "light state matter" is just pure electromagnetic radiation light. There is no "entity" in this light. Therefore, this kind of pure electromagnetic radiation light is not "the state of matter light", it is not the fifth physical state of matter.


5.2. Stars are not made of hydrogen and helium, nor are they nuclear reactions

The light state of matter is the physical state that a star needs to reach when it disintegrates in space. New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century [1] holds that the formation of liquid or gaseous phase transition of stars is not caused by nuclear reaction, but by the gravitational effect of massive stars, which condenses "heat" from outer space to the center, heating the stars into liquid or gas, which is also the cause of high temperature phase transition effect in the earth's core. When a star heats its material to a temperature higher than the critical temperature of "material light state", it will explode in space, which is the reason of supernova explosion. After the explosion, the stellar material will spread to the space in the form of "material light state". "Black hole entity star" can be called the ultimate fire extinguisher to stop the chain reaction in space after supernova explosion.   The existence of the "black hole entity star" in the universe makes the balance and harmony among the galaxies and stars appear in our whole universe [6-7]!

This paper holds that stars, like our earth, are made up of many elements. Our present theory holds that all stars are nuclear reactions and are made up of hydrogen and helium. This is a wrong epistemology. The real reason is that because of the huge mass of stars, heat energy condenses centripetally from outer space, and gravitational effect heats the stars into liquid or gas state, which makes them become liquid or gas stars. The reason for the theory that all stars are composed of hydrogen and helium is the misjudgment of stellar spectrum. As we all know, every element has characteristic spectral lines. Because hydrogen and helium are the first and second elements in the front of the periodic table of elements, when various element phases become "material state light", the critical temperature point of hydrogen and helium phase transition to "material state light" is the lowest, so the characteristic spectral lines are also the strongest When we analyze the composition of stellar elements, we can get that stars are composed of hydrogen and helium according to the spectral analysis of hydrogen and helium. For this kind of wrong judgment, I use a popular analogy to make you understand: according to the above understanding of the "state of matter light", according to the order of the periodic table of elements from front to back, the critical temperature point of the glow of each element when it changes to the "state of matter light" increases in turn, because the critical temperature point of the glow of hydrogen and helium when it changes to the "state of matter light" is the lowest, because When a star composed of 99% iron and 1% hydrogen and helium heats itself to 1000 degrees (iron: melting point is 1538 ℃), because 99% iron in the star is still in a solid state, iron does not emit the spectrum of "material light", while the star composed of only 1% hydrogen and helium has already released strong starlight with hydrogen and helium Spectrum. At this time, when we use the spectrum of the star to analyze the element composition of the star, we will get the wrong judgment that the star is composed of 100% hydrogen and helium. The star, which is really composed of 99% iron, is still in a solid state when it is heated to 1000 degrees, so there is no "material light state" star spectrum of iron, which leads to our misunderstanding that the star is composed of hydrogen and helium according to the star spectrum analysis.

In a word, the new theoretical system holds that all stars are composed of multiple elements, not just hydrogen and helium, just like our earth. The reason why we observe the spectrum of stars shows that all stars are composed of hydrogen and helium is that according to the understanding of "the state of matter light" in this paper, all matter elements can become "the state of matter light" under certain temperature conditions Because hydrogen and helium are arranged in the first and second places of the periodic table, the critical temperature point of hydrogen and helium when it becomes "the state of matter light" is the lowest, so that the strongest spectrum of all stars is hydrogen and helium spectrum, which leads us to mistake stars for hydrogen and helium. The liquid or gaseous structure of a star is not a nuclear reaction (Note: see [1] for the causes of high temperature heat energy of heavy elements),Because of its huge mass, it absorbs more heat energy from outer space and heats itself into liquid or gas state, making stars into liquid or gas stars[1].


6.    Summary and deduction of new ideas in the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century

At present, the understanding of the composition of the material world is that the material world is composed of particles, and the difference of different superposition numbers of particles in atoms constitutes various material elements of the material world, such as hydrogen. There is only one proton in the nucleus and only one electron outside the nucleus. Other elements are just the difference between the number of electrons and the number of protons superimposed on each other. According to the current theoretical understanding: as long as we can master the technology of injecting different numbers of protons into the nucleus and different numbers of electrons outside the nucleus, all the material elements in the world can be produced. Under this theoretical framework: all material elements are only different in the number of particles, and this theory is, in the final analysis, a constitution theory of things. This method of understanding the material world on the basis of particles can not reveal the causes of the formation of particles and atomic structure in the material world. The material world is composed of two basic types of "heat energy" and "entity", which will be able to reveal the reasons for the formation of particles and atomic structure in the material world [7]. According to the viewpoint that each element represents different "entity", the theory of single constitution of material world is avoided. For the epistemology that each element represents a different "entity", see the second part of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century: the new basic epistemology of the material world [1].

The "material world" we now realize is the "material world" composed of the basic unit "atom". Therefore, since the new theoretical system puts forward the combination of "entity" and "heat energy" to form the material world, it is necessary to answer the question of how "entity" and "heat energy" interact to produce the basic unit "atom" of the material world. For the answer to the important question of how to produce "atom", the basic unit of "material world", see the "dynamic atomic model of particle charge" in the second part of the article "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century"[1]. This "dynamic atomic model of particle charge" describes the formation process of "atom" produced by the interaction between "entity" and "heat energy", which reveals It shows the real reason for the interaction between "entity" and "heat energy" to produce "atom". This new "particle charge dynamic atomic model" answers the reason why the basic unit "atom" of "material world" is produced and formed. According to the new viewpoint of "dynamic atomic model of particle charge", the atomic structure of various material elements should be expressed in terms of the frequency of electrons overflowing from the nucleus and the number of electron groups, rather than in terms of the number of several protons and electrons. The introduction of the new expression is detailed in new horizons of physics research in the 21st century [7].

According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, the material world is composed of two basic types of material property "entity" and material property "heat energy": "material property" refers to the component of material, and the single existence of "material property" can not be called material. Material is the product of the combination of "entity" and "heat energy", and all "materials" contain heat energy, without "heat energy" ”The existing "single entity" can not be called "matter". This "single entity" in a black hole is a "physical state" without atomic structure, which is called "black hole entity" in this paper. The "heat energy" of 3K cosmic temperature distributed in space is the "single heat energy" existing independently in space. The independent 3K "heat energy" in the space is the reason for the attenuation of starlight when it propagates in the space. When the state of combination of "heat energy" and "entity" is unbalanced, matter appears to have different positive and negative charges. When the combination of "heat energy" and "entity" increases with the gradual increase of thermal energy, the degree of particle micromation of "entity" will be increased continuously, so that the degree of particle micromation can be infinitely small, thus changing the physical state of the substance to change phase transition, and its order is: The physical state of "single entity"; solid state; liquid; gas state; plasma body state; "The light state of matter". When the "The light state of matter" enters the "single entity", it can make the "single entity" phase change into "solid" again, and then enter the next cycle of the physical state of matter [7].

This paper holds that the attempt to reveal the mystery of the constitution of the material world by searching for the smallest unit particle of the material world is a set of methods for understanding the constitution of the material world developed along the principle of phenomenology, which is a mistake of methodology and direction. In the future, with the continuous improvement of human technology to enhance high voltage and strong thermal energy, the trend of thermal energy decomposition into particles will never end, not only the mesons, hadrons, gluons, STRATONS, leptons and more than 100 kinds of strange particles that we now know. We will find more tiny particles. We will never find the smallest particle in the material world. Therefore, this paper holds that all efforts to explore the smallest particles in the material world will be futile. If we continue to use these particles with different masses, adopt the idea of defining fixed patterns, and explain many particles with various methods, such as "meson, hadron, gluon, STRATON, lepton", and countless "n-son" and "x-son" to be named in the future, which are used to explain various particles in the nucleus, it will inevitably lead to the recognition of many particles in the nucleus structure It's a mess.   According to the new theoretical viewpoint of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, according to the law that the size of "heat energy" is inversely proportional to the size of particles produced by decomposing "entity", and the new understanding of the causes of positive and negative charges, we will have a simple and clear understanding of more than 100 kinds of strange particles of different sizes and their charges [7]. Human beings will never be at a loss for a large number of strange particles any more!

To sum up, the new theory is a new understanding of the material world from the perspective of the interaction between two different physical properties, based on the existence of two different physical properties "entity" and "heat energy" in the material world. This new epistemology can reveal the causes of the formation of particles, the formation of atomic structure and the gravitational force of matter, and the repulsive force of matter. In the new theoretical system, the new understanding of the existence of multi element "entities" in the periodic table of elements is the theory of multi entity constitution of matter. It is not a simple element constitution theory of superposition of the number of particles. The understanding of elements in the new theoretical system is that the physical and chemical properties of uranium protons cannot be changed even if they are put into iron atoms! The solid particles of each element have their own physical and chemical properties. Under this theoretical framework, the particles in the atoms of various elements are composed of "entity" particles with different physical and chemical properties. Under this theoretical framework, "entity in matter" stands for "mass of matter" and "heat energy in matter" stands for "energy of matter".


7. A new epistemology of the universe and the Galactic system


7.1. reasons for the existence of supermassive black holes in the universe

According to the above understanding that "the state of matter light" is the physical state of the big bang of stars, because black holes are composed of "single entity". Although it is not the "solid" atomic physical state of matter, it is a more stable physical state than the "solid" atomic physical state. This physical state can not directly form the "material light state", and there will not be the problem of big bang disintegration caused by the stellar phase becoming the "material light state". Therefore, the mass of the "black hole entity star" can be infinitely increased, so that it can be in the cosmic space .This is the reason for the existence of supermaximal "black holes" in the universe, that is, the existence of supermaximal black hole entity "Star" phenomenon in the universe.


7.2. the reason why the galaxy "black hole entity star" has strong cohesive gravity

At the center of the Galactic architecture is a supermassive "black hole entity.". According to the new theoretical system, matter is the product of the combination of "entity" and "heat energy". "Entity" and "heat energy" have the characteristics of combination. Therefore, the "black hole entity" composed of "single entity" has a strong "thermal energy" absorption characteristics. Because the composition of matter "stars" contains heat energy, the super large "black hole entity star" located in the center of the galaxy absorbs the heat energy of the super large system space of the universe, thus forming a centripetal condensation gravitational effect on all matter stars and celestial bodies in the galaxy. Therefore, the galaxy relies on the "black hole entity star" to condense all matter stars and celestial bodies into an independent galactic system structure.


7.3. Formation mechanism of "black hole single entity star" phase transition into matter state

Black hole is a "single entity star". Although this "single entity physical state" can not directly form the "state of matter light" and cause the big bang problem, because the "black hole entity star" has the characteristics of absorbing heat energy, it will cause the "black hole entity star" outer surface to change to the "solid" physical state due to the continuous increase of "heat energy", which makes the "black hole entity star" There are many states of matter on the surface of black hole. In this way, when the amount of material continuously generated on the outer surface of the "single entity" black hole is large, the material body will be separated from the surface of the "single entity" black hole (the specific reason for the separation of the material body will be discussed later), and according to the escape mass, different mass objects will be produced: stars, planets, asteroids, comets and other known celestial bodies. With the increase of the number of "stars" and other celestial bodies escaping from the "black hole entity star", the Galactic celestial structure around the "black hole entity star" is formed. In fact, "black hole entity star" is a process of continuously heating its own "entity" to form galactic matter by absorbing the heat energy of the super system space of the universe, until the "black hole entity star" gradually shrinks and disappears, that is, when most of the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy becomes the physical state of atomic matter, and is separated from the "black hole entity star" After that, the gravity of the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy will gradually decline until it disappears, leading to the disintegration of the galaxy. After the disintegration, all the material “star” in the galaxy will spread to the larger space of the universe, resulting in material turbulence in this space-time.


7.4. The mechanism of "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy releasing “star" containing thermal energy

For the above point of view, some people will question, since the "black hole entity star" huge endothermic gravity, How can it send out "starstar"? This paper argues that if the black hole "single entity" only has a strong endothermic gravity, then all stars in the galaxy, including our earth, have long been swallowed up by the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy. Therefore, I think that while the black hole absorbs heat to form a strong gravity, it also has a mechanism to release heat. Atomic stars (stars, planets) rely on the release of electromagnetic heat energy through protons, thus forming the balance mechanism of stars (planets) in and out of heat energy [1]. The black hole is composed of "single entity" and has no proton, so it can't release heat energy through proton releasing electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, this paper holds that the release of heat energy from the "black hole entity star" is accomplished by releasing the "Star" containing heat energy. Thus, all kinds of starcontaining heat energy are released from the outer surface of the "black hole entity star", which makes the "black hole entity" keep the balance of heat energy entering and releasing.


7.5. Each spiral arm of the galaxy is formed by "black hole entity star" continuously releasing all kinds of "Star" along this path

Because "black hole" is composed of "single entity", it has a strong ability to absorb heat. When a large amount of heat energy enters the "single entity" of the black hole, the "matter" with atomic structural force will appear on the outer surface, which will revive the outer surface of the "black hole entity" into solid matter. With the increase of heat energy collection, a large number of materials will appear on the outer surface. Because the "black hole" is a "single entity" without kinetic energy, when a large number of matter bodies with kinetic energy and heat energy appear on the outer surface, due to the "interaction law of gravitational and repulsive forces between matter bodies", there will be a strong repulsive force between larger matter bodies. For example, when the repulsive force between the mass of a star and the material on the surface of the "black hole entity" occurs, the "black hole" will repel the "Star" from the outer surface of the "black hole entity star", so that the "Star" will become a new star of the birth of the "black hole". The mass of the escaping black hole "Star" is related to the mass of the matter produced by the heat energy absorbed by the black hole from the universe. Therefore, according to the size of escape mass, black holes give birth to the phenomenon of stars, planets, asteroids, comets and nebulae. Because there are many new born "stars" near the "black hole star", the density of "stars" in the center of the galaxy is very high.

Every body of matter that has just separated from the surface of the "black hole entity" is a new star. Due to the existence of the "law of gravitational repulsion balance distance" among the born stars, one star pushes another star, and each star leads its own stellar group to leave the "black hole entity", one after another, continuously and vastly, which forms the effect of the giant galactic spiral arm belt. The four giant spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy (see Figure 1) are the paths of stars separated from the surface of the "black hole entity" in sequence, one following the other. That is to say, the spiral arm band is in the order of launching from the parent star. One star pushes another star, so the effect of the giant spiral arm band is formed. The "stars" on the spiral arm band follow the law of gravitational repulsion balance spacing, and revolve around the "black hole entity"! Thus, a spectacular spiral arm structure of the Milky Way galaxy is formed.

457247dc57cb53884ec640c1eb3cc4f.jpg

Figure 1

In this theoretical framework, the composition of the "Star" elements at the end of the spiral arm band of the galaxy is the composition of the "entity" elements in the outermost layer at the initial state of the "black hole entity". The stars near the origin of the "black hole entity" in the Milky way are the newly born stars of the "black hole entity", while the stars near the edge of the Milky way are the ancient stars that emerged earlier from the "black hole entity". Assuming that this view is on the orbit of natural science truth, then the solar star at the end of a spiral arm and on the edge of the galaxy is an ancient star born in the early stage of the galactic center. All the satellites of the solar system were separated from the "black hole entity" with the sun at about the same time.


7.6. The formation mechanism and destination of the Milky way

The formation mechanism of the Milky Way Galaxy: the initial state of the Milky Way galaxy is just a "black hole entity star" without satellite super mass. This massive "black hole entity star" gradually absorbs heat energy from cosmic space, transforms "black hole single entity" into "matter" through continuous heating phase, gradually reduces "black hole single entity" and transforms "black hole entity" into matter, forming a matter state "Star" ball around the silver nucleus, thus generating the Galactic galaxy system structure.

The final destination of the Galaxy: through the "black hole entity star" continuously absorbing heat energy, continuously releasing matter stars along the spiral arm path, finally forming the spiral arm structure of the galaxy. Therefore, the Milky way is the expansion process after the "black hole entity star" in the center of the Milky way transforms into a material star. All stars and celestial bodies in the galaxy are separated from the surface of the black hole entity. This process is that the "black hole entity star" absorbs heat energy from outer space and generates matter on the outer surface of the "black hole entity star". The more heat energy the "black hole entity star" absorbs, the faster the "entity" on the outer surface of the "black hole entity star" is separated to form matter, until the "black hole entity star" continuously absorbs heat energy in outer space, and finally the "single entity" is separated ”All of them are transformed into "material state". At this time, the galaxy's condensed gravity drops, and the galaxy will disintegrate. After the disintegration, all the material stars and celestial bodies in the galaxy will spread to the universe, resulting in material turbulence in this space-time. This is the end result of the galaxy.

In a word, the formation mechanism of the galaxy is that the super massive "black hole entity star" absorbs the heat energy of the universe through the "black hole single entity" to generate matter. The total mass of the initial state of the black hole "Star" is equal to the sum of the total mass of all celestial bodies after the formation of the galaxy. The formation mechanism of galaxy is the process of "single entity state" changing into "matter state".


7.7. The universe is a conjecture formed by every "space-time unit of cosmic matter"

From the above point of view, the smaller the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy, the easier the galaxy is to disintegrate. When there is a large "black hole entity" in the center of a galaxy, it is a stable galaxy, or the initial state of galaxy formation. Maybe there are countless invisible "black hole entities" in our universe. This paper holds that "heat energy" is "energy", "single heat energy" is called "positive energy state" and "single entity" is called "negative energy state". The huge "black hole entity stars" are all "single entity" negative energy states that plunder "heat energy", so the "black hole entity stars" have the characteristics of plundering "heat energy" each other, which results in the mutual avoidance effect of repulsive force between "black hole entity stars", which is equivalent to the repulsive effect between negative charges. It is precisely because of the repulsive force between the giant "black hole entity stars" in the universe that the "black hole entity stars" divide the space of "entity" in the universe! Each "black hole entity star" represents an independent unit dividing the "entity" space of the universe, which can be called "cosmic entity space-time unit". Because the "black hole entity star" eventually becomes a matter star system, the "cosmic entity space-time unit" can also be called "cosmic substance space-time unit". In each "black hole entity star" divided into "cosmic matter space-time unit", not all are 3K cosmic temperature heat energy!

In a word, the "space-time unit of cosmic matter" formed by each "black hole entity" may be "a unit of the universe", and the universe is composed of such countless "space-time units of cosmic matter". Because "black hole entity star" is a "single entity" with no heat energy and negative energy state "without light", how many invisible initial "black hole entity star" exist in the universe? Because we can't observe the number of "cosmic material space-time units", we can't observe the size of the universe through visibility, we can only say that we can observe the size of the visible universe. In the invisible universe, the number of "black hole entity stars" in the initial state of "cosmic material space-time unit" will be an eternal mystery of materialism!


8. Conclusion

Although this paper can't answer how the "entity" and "heat energy" are produced, or how much "heat energy" and "entity" there are in the universe, or how big our universe is. But it's a step further than understanding the physical world from the point of view of particles. This "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century" is an in-depth understanding of the material world from the perspective of two different basic types of the material world and the interaction between "heat energy" and "entity" with two different physical properties. This new theoretical system can further reveal the reasons for the formation of the structure of particles and atoms, as well as the causes of the gravitational and repulsive forces of matter. It will be able to reveal more scientific problems that are difficult to explain by current theories [1] [7].

This paper is a summary and deduction of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. It is a new epistemology of the formation of the Galactic system structure and the components of the universe. For more new ideas about the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, please refer to literature [1-3] [6-7].


9. Reference

[1] Jiang Hua Zhou. New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. 2020 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1634 012103. IOP Publishing.DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1634/1/012103

[2] Jiang Hua Zhou.   Reveal the cause of the formation of gravity. The sixth Chinese Symposium on new photoelectric detection technology and its application. Beijing. December 3-5,   2019.   © (2020) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2564978

[3] Jiang Hua Zhou. Revolution in basic research of Physics Will usher in a new era in the study of interstellar space vehicles. London(ICIEI 2020): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Education Innovations July 2020 .Pages,P:89–95. Publisher: Association for Computing MachineryNew YorkNYUnited States.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3411681.3411687

[4] Edited by Shen Xianjia, Zhang Xixin and Qi Youlong. A brief history of physics. Shandong Education Association of China. 1985.

[5] Translated by song Yusheng, Li Xinzhang, Hui exing and Wang Kangmao. Lectures by Nobel laureates, physics (Volume I). China Science Press, 1985.

[6] Jiang Hua Zhou. Is the existence of matter light state the fifth physical state?Potential science, 1990 (5): 7-13.

[7] Jiang Hua Zhou. a new vision of physics research in the 21st century. Jilin, China: Science and Technology Press, 2005: 1-241.




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